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Being a Good Chess Trader

  • WGM Natalia_Pogonina
  • | Apr 3, 2012
  • | 9413 views
  • | 39 comments

Trading pieces is a typical technique in chess. While at the start of the game both you and your opponent have an equal chess army, later in the game your forces are starting to perish. Naturally, like Saviely Tartakover used to say, “It’s better to sacrifice your opponent’s pieces.” However, the guys sitting across the board from you are usually selfish and greedy, so they don’t want to give anything away for free. Hence, you have to trick them into believing your less-efficient pieces are at least as good as their more active counter-parts in the opponents’ armies. You can use this technique both when attacking and when defending.

What is stronger in each particular position: a bishop or a knight?

In Russian bishops are called “elephants” and knights – “horses”. This made GM Eduard Gufeld, an avid bishop fan, say: “If you don’t know what is stronger – a horse or an elephant – then go to the zoo!”

Should you trade into an endgame?

These and other questions often come to a chess player’s mind during the game. To make a decision, you need to correctly evaluate the relative strengths of the pieces and foresee how the trade will affect your position in general. Is that bishop critical for defending the opponent’s light-squared pawns in the endgame? Is your seemingly passive knight crucial for capturing an outpost in the middle of the board or protecting a vital pawn on h2? Do you need one or two rooks to dominate the open file? In each particular case you need to carefully weigh all the factors. Relying on stereotypes (e.g., being certain that bishops are always better than knights in open positions) can be quite harmful. Sometimes your most active and shining piece gets exchanged for a relatively dull and neglected opponent’s piece, but the effect is still positive.

Now let me give you some tips on trading pieces while attacking:

  1. When you have a material advantage, trading pieces often favors the stronger side. For example, having an extra pawn in an endgame is usually better than in the middlegame, when there are lots of pieces left, and anything can happen. Note: this rule is not universal, and mainly applies to pieces, not pawns. Of course, if you exchange too many pieces and pawns, it can sometimes allow the weaker side to save the game. For instance, if you have an extra exchange, you don’t want to take it to a rook vs knight or rook vs bishop ending (both are usually drawn). Also, don’t get too carried away by a checkers approach to chess. The latter game is special in the sense that checkmating the opponent’s king is more important than capturing many pieces.
  2. Eliminating a critical defender. For example, a piece that is protecting the king or weak or key squares. Disposing of such a piece is like killing a king’s personal bodyguard, or breaking down the massive iron gates of a fortress.

Trading pieces when defending:

  1. Get some breathing space for your pieces. When you don’t have many opportunities for maneuvering, you might want to trade off some of your pieces. For instance, if you have one knight on f6 and the other on d7, and you want to see both of them on d5 instead, you might consider exchanging one of them. This is a typical example of the concept of an “extra piece” introduced by Mark Dvoretzky.
  2. Eliminate the key attackers of your opponent and thus ruin his plans.
  3. If you have more material, it often makes sense to trade as much as possible. Initiative tends to extinguish when few pieces are left on the board.
  4. If your king is at risk, one of the defensive techniques is simplifying the position as much as possible and heading for the endgame. This is especially true for positions when your king is exposed and/or can’t castle.

A few general pieces of advice:

  1. Trade passive and unpromising pieces for active ones and those with a potentially bright future. If your piece is lazy and not doing anything at all, why not get rid of it?
  2. Always evaluate the consequences of trading into an endgame. Who is winning then – you or your opponent?
  3. Playing against an isolated pawn, you usually want to trade as many pieces as possible to weaken the pawn’s defense, and then try to capture it. However, you should be careful: for example, if it’s a dangerous passed pawn which you can’t stop, trading all your pieces will be suicidal!
  4. A Russian chess quip that originates from blitz: “The more you trade, the less you will blunder!” Indeed, strong players often try to simplify the position into a well-known structure if they are short on time. For example, if you have three extra pawns, you will be much more comfortable playing a rook+5 pawns vs rook +2 pawns endgame than if you have queens, bishops and knights on the board. Decent technique will allow you to win this position basically without thinking much. The less calculations and unforeseen moves, the better.

Unequal trades (for example, a bishop and a knight for a rook and a pawn) belong to the field of imbalances and deserve a special article. The same can be said about sacrifices.

superfinal320.jpg

I couldn't find a pic from the round itself, so here's me and Olga Girya at the Russian Superfinal'07

At the recent European Women’s Chess Championship I had to face WGM Olga Girya on my birthday, March 9th:

I made a mistake in the opening and got a passive position. To make the defense easier, I decided to trade dark-squared bishops. While I lost a pawn in this operation, the sacrifice was well worth it since White’s initiative was decreased significantly.

Comments


  • 4 months ago

    sepehr-adab

    you are byoutfoll

  • 13 months ago

    WGM Natalia_Pogonina

    Let’s stay in touch on social networks! Here are my official accounts:

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  • 2 years ago

    BillyIdle

    "Should you trade into an endgame?"
    If you see the win you can trade off the queens, if they are still on board.
    +
    "Hence, you have to trick them into believing your less-efficient pieces are at least as good as their more active counter-parts..."
    Very Good Advice.

  • 2 years ago

    silverhawkz

    great madam!Cool

  • 2 years ago

    ChazR

    When are you coming to California?  Would you like to see Hawaii?

  • 2 years ago

    astrolover

    I was expecting one or two more examples.

  • 2 years ago

    chessrube

    another great article

  • 2 years ago

    Redglove6

    I liked the tip about trading pieces in time trouble.  That's a new tip for me and worth adding to the quiver. 

  • 2 years ago

    ChazR

    Will you marry me?  Perhaps, my son.

  • 2 years ago

    arsenalitoop

    thanks

  • 2 years ago

    chessContact

    The dynamics of chess consists of a gradual change of the position on the board, even after an apparently insignificant sequence of moves. When pieces get traded are moments with abrupt transformations. The exchange, the alternate elimination of pieces, plays a vital role in chess. There’s very rarely an equal trade of pieces. Every time it happens, it actually tips the scales in the favor of one or the other player. This shows how important it is to learn how to effectively trade pieces to gain and accumulate some advantage in the chess battle. And sometimes it’s the best or perhaps the only way of realizing that advantage.

    ‘In my opinion, the process of chess is based essentially on interlinking exchanges. The objective of these interlinking exchanges is a relative gain of material or positional value. There are no other and cannot be any other objectives. At the end of the game these exchanges must lead to a gain of infinitely large magnitude (to mate)’, Mikhail Botvinnik.

    chessContact at: iplayoochess.wordpress.com

    see also: http://www.onlinechesslessons.net/2012/01/09/learn-the-art-of-the-trade/

  • 2 years ago

    yograjmatrx

    Normally i am good in trading but this article open all new perspectives towards trades. Thanks.

  • 2 years ago

    chessnaivete

    Great article.

  • 2 years ago

    StevenBailey13

    Where I come from we call the Bishops "Bishops" and the Knights "Knights"

    Tongue out But seriously great article!

  • 2 years ago

    SeaOrchins

    In my hometown we call the knight as "horse" and the rook as "torre".

  • 2 years ago

    vanhafford

    You Go Girl!!!

  • 2 years ago

    TrlpleAAA

    [COMMENT DELETED]
  • 2 years ago

    hankas

    Thanks for the article. Interestingly, in my country, we also call the bishops "elephants", and the knights "horses".

  • 2 years ago

    hreedwork

    Great article, thanks!

  • 2 years ago

    btonks

    "Disposing of such a piece is like killing a king’s personal bodyguard, or breaking down the massive iron gates of a fortress." I really like this insight into your imagination! I just wonder what the whole board looks like to you in full battle.

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