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Is Chess a Sport?

  • Vik-Hansen
  • | May 30, 2013
  • | 67256 views
  • | 107 comments

It never fails; in time with Magnus’ chessploits, the debate in Norwegian newspapers’ commentary fields rages red hot over whether chess is a sport or athletics, with no surprising conclusions: one agrees to disagree, definitions do not diminish or lessen Magnus’ performances and “you can’t compare apples and oranges.”

Before arguing chess is a sport and athletics, let’s first do away with the formalism:

According to (Norwegian) Wikipedia, “athletics” (“idrett”, from old Norse, “id”, work or activity and “drott”, power, strength or perseverance), in addition to bodily or physical accomplishments, which govern contemporary understanding, originally referred to all forms or expressions of highly regarded skills like music, poetry and knowledge of runes. While athletics emphasises the athletes’ efforts and control of the body (skiing, skating, boxing, tennis, handball and football), sports, meaning "anything humans find amusing or entertaining”, just as well appreciate the use of facilities, equipment, tools, devices, means of transport or animal as a basic condition (sailing, equestrianism and motor racing), and today the concepts are more often used interchangeably.

 

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To begin with, we might say that all sports or athletic sports belonging under the Wikipedian definition amount to being “only” “play” or “a game” since these are ruled based activities. Claiming chess “is just a game”, because it is rule based, and therefore unworthy of undue attention, is a tautology (self-explanatory) and explains nothing. Mind you, the activity we call life may also be perceived to be a game with rules and recipes. When asking if chess is a sport or athletics, what we’re really asking is if chess players perform, and more so, in the physical sense of the word.

When Børre Rognlien, president or chairman of the Norwegian Athletic Association (NIF) and Widar Fossum, former vice president of the Norwegian Chess Federation (NSF) state that chess is not athletics because NSF is not a member of the NIF, this is self-contradictory. NSF not being a member of the NIF merely goes to show that NSF is not a member of the NIF, not that chess in and of itself is not athletics.

 

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"Sports president: - Carlsen is not an athlete" says Børre Rognlien in this VG article, explaining why the country's and world's best chess player was not nominated for the male athlete of the year award

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"Chess is not athletics", says this article in the Norwegian newspaper Aftenposten,
which had at the time of writing 65 readers commenting

Despite agreeing in newspapers’ commentary fields that games and activities like chess, bridge, archery, dart, shooting etc., involve performance of some kind, still, the physical aspect seems to saturate contemporary understanding of what a sporting or athletic performance is. In a country obsessed with countables and quantifiables, what cannot be measured does not exist, we may ask if not the accent on the physical excludes the possibility for a finer perception of what “performance” or “achievement” might be. Few doubt mental gladiators perform but what, where and how?  Is “blood, sweat and tears” (Johan Kaggestad, Norwegian athletics coach and TV commentator) or “motion” (1500-meter runner, Henrik Ingebrigtsen) the only criterion on a sporting or athletic performance or achievement?


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The prevalent preference for the physical may be argued to be grounded in the still deeply rooted Cartesian (after René Descartes, 1596-1650, above in a Frans Hals painting) dualism matter (body)-mind (soul) representing two ontologically separate categories impossible to combine into a higher unity.

Not until Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908-1961), in his Phenomenology of Perception (1945), suggested that we know, experience and are-in-the-world rather through our body, consciousness (cogito) was perceived as the primary source of knowledge and experience, the body a mere appendage.

While philosophy and religion emphasise the mind rather than the body, Ponty reminds us that the brain (still) is part of the body (sic!) and thus relaunches or reintroduces man as a homogenous unity consisting both of mind and matter, body and soul, mutually interdependent.

Just like religion and philosophy ignore the corporeal significance for knowledge and experience, Rognlien and Ingebrigtsen, in their emphasis of physical motion, go to the opposite extreme and accentuate the body at the expense of the brain, as if arms and legs move all by themselves.

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However, today we know that any corporeal motion starts off with electric impulses subconsciously triggered in the oubliettes of the brain. The brain processing a 100 million million (0.1 quadrillion) instructions per second (daily activities) and the speed of thought clocked in to somewhere between 0.5-100 m/s (between 550 and 750 milliseconds for the information or perception of something to reach the brain and to be comprehended and interpreted), testify to motion. Because external corporeal motion, arms and legs, depends on internal cerebral motion, not yet clear is why external corporeal motion should weigh heavier concerning the definition of sports or athletics.

According to Nørretranders, studies of cerebral energy metabolism are studies of the work the brain does. Therefore, even internal mental activity, such as recalling the furnishing of a room, is a genuine physical and physiological activity with clear connections to perfectly tangible factors. Thought is an objective (material) event in the body in every way reminiscent of corporeal activities such as movement and there is no reason to consider thought any different from the rest of what the body does. Just like tennis, or any other physical activity, thought requires calories (Nørretranders, 1999: 119).

In other words, there is no principal difference between Magnus lifting his arm and sacking a kniggeth or Petter (Northug, Norwegian cross-country skier) lifting his poles and stroking himself forward; both actions spring from subconsciously triggered impulses in the brain. Strokes and chess moves have the same source. And voila! We have compared apples with oranges!

We may therefore conclude that the definitions of sports and athletics are not based on what is really going in but on what we observe and stem from a time before organised tournament chess and insights into the brain. We see arms and legs but not neurons and synapses.

As long as different activities yield different reactions, even if  lowest common multiples  may be found, “corporeal or physical performance” as a criterion on whether you do athletics or not, appears irrelevant because at times we do have “one of those days” and definitions do not depend on our day to day condition. Are those with the most “blood, sweat and tears” the greatest athletes? Do cross-country skiers with shorter strokes and strides, perform less athletics or skiing than those with longer strokes and strides? What if you die on the playing field or during physical exertion? If not, we have to grade and define corporeal performance and where to draw the line? Do physical or bodily performances or skills lend themselves to precise defining or grading? Since measuring or quantifying chess skills and chess knowledge is impossible, the rating system is our best shot. What, then, makes for a decent rating? Magnus’ latest peak? And how to decide which activities and disciplines that merit to be recognised as athlethics (idrett)? In the days of yore, music, poetry and runes, but today?

To play chess, professionally or not, may be compared to study for and take an exam and chess players are graduating all the time, before, under and after tournaments. Professionals work on their chess between 7-8 hours a day and perform theoretically, practically, mentally and physically. They practice different types of positions; openings, middlegames and endgames. They work on their tactics (reflexes and intuition) and scrutinise positions to improve their positional feeling and ability to calculate variations, i.e. visualising sequences of moves. During the game they worry about their preparations (do I remember them and are they good enough?), the result of the game, their opponent for the next round and the outcome of the tournament. They have to be red alert (“Beware! The man on the other side, has bad intentions”, Bent Larsen) and keep their calm in attack as well as in defence. They worry if they can win good positions against stronger opposition and must take care not to underestimate lower rated opponents. They get headaches and sleep poorly while the mind grinds about today’s game.

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All this mental tension and exertion manifests itself physically, and well known is Karpov’s 10 kilos weight loss during his World Championship match against Kasparov in 84-85 and that the young replaces the old. Just like our experience of headaches hinges on material prerequisites, chess players’ experience of physical fatigue depends on neural collaboration during strain and therefore makes it difficult with regard to the definition of sports or athletics to argue why more traditional physical exertion should weigh heavier than chess players’ fatigue resulting from strong concentration over time (in studies as well as in tournament play).

Kaggestad mentions the competitive aspect as essential to whether something qualifies as a sport and, we may add, the competitive aspect transforms (any) activity into sport, if not necessarily into athlethics. According to Wikipedia, chess may therefore be a sport and athletics due to physical exertion (more so during tournaments than casual games), possible use of some device, tool or equipment and scoring points; 1 for a win, ½ for a draw and 0 for a loss. Thus, the definition also covers blindfold chess where players exchange only the coordinates when playing. The expression “to become a sport”, precisely ties the competitive aspect to the concept of sports since we do not say “to become athletics”, suggesting you may exercise athletics without competing or scoring points. Since use of equipment, tools or devices is possible but not imperative, the competitive aspect appears more relevant as to if chess qualifies as a sport. By scoring points, one exerts oneself more, because more “is at stake” Gadamer (1900-2002).

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 phphVWEJm.jpegHans Georg Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics or theory of interpretation, formulated in his magnum opus, Truth and Method, (1960), deals with how we, through our prejudices, expectations and presuppositions, “encounter” a work of art, say a painting or a text, and where this encounter jeopardises our understanding or interpretative framework, even if the painting is merely hanging on the wall. Think of a painting or a text that annoyed you or ticked you off. Congratulations, you’ve been played. A more convoluted point of bringing Gadamer into the discussion is that something may be at stake for both those who claim chess is a sport and those who claim chess is “just a game.”.

The debate over whether chess is a sport and/or athletics (idrett) or “just a game”, may be more significant than what first meets the eye and like in so many other contexts, it’s all about the money. Doing sports or athletics is considered desirable with athletes serving as examples and role models. Sports and athletics are thought to develop a host of qualities, attributes and characteristics, e.g. team spirit, perseverance, ability to plan/analyse and carry out, not to mention the noble art of defeat, i.e. it’s not the winning that counts but the taking part etc. If chess, as we have seen, lends itself to be defined as sports and athletics, chess may attract commercial attention (read: sponsorships).

Conclusion:

In a wider context and broader perspective, recent discoveries on brain and consciousness suggest that the conceptual distinction between sport and athletics ("idrett") is less clear than perhaps hitherto assumed.

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Bibliography:

Nørretranders, T., The User Illusion, Penguin Book, 1999

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Curtesy and thanks to Mr.Frederic Friedel at Chessbase.com for great images to go with the article.

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Related posts:

Mind games—Who’s Doing the Playing?

FIDE—Who’s Being Indecisive?

Et argument for sjakk som sport og idrett (Norwegian)

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About the author:

Born in 1968, Rune Vik-Hansen graduated from the University of Tromsø in 1999 with a thesis on Heidegger's concept of Dasein. Other fields of interests are metaphysics, ontology, theory of science and political ethics.
Besides having worked as a teacher on different levels, Vik-Hansen also writes philosophical texts, chronicles, papers and essays as well as children’s literature. He is currently actively involved as a mentor on writing, philosophy and chess projects with school children in New York City.

Comments


  • 2 months ago

    camberfoil

    @macwario Chess is LIFE. (to quote Fishy Fischer)

  • 7 months ago

    totofernie65

    "chess is a sport.. all forms of actions in any sports either individual or group are coming from and dictated by the mind"  as in chess alone-- a chess master gives an amateur a handicap of time with the use of chess clock :1 minute versus 1 hour and i see to it that the chess master will beat the amateur convincingly and easily. so there is a physical aspect there-- thinking and moving chess pieces by hand faster on the chess board ..and the result beating his opponent before the allotted time of one minute! another thing is the simultaneous exhibition : a chess master versus 20-50 amateur chess player in 2 hours! if you don't agree..then try me..

  • 9 months ago

    llsull2002

    nooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo. NOT AT ALL!!!!!!!!!

  • 10 months ago

    agentsamjohnson

    Well spoken, Vik-Hansen. Based upon my knowledge, specifically in the field of neurology, it is irrefutable that Chess be denied a status as an exercise of the most important muscle in the human body - the brain - and the amount of cognitive skills required to play chess is apparent in its difficulties as it involves immense amounts of calculating within the frontal cortex in the form of intense manipulation of information amongst the immediate memory (perceiving in the moment and ability to recall and express), short term (remembering what we perceived) and long-term (what we know). In short: Perceive, manipulate, express. To provide some empirical evidence: I had a brain injury causing deficiencies in the frontal lobe and as a result it is difficult for me to perceive and manipulate tons of information in front of me simultaneously, hence why Chess is overwhelming at first until the board has lesser pieces in play - fortunate for myself, the more chess I play the more it seems my detriments in this area seem to get better.


    In terms of considering chess a "sport," I would assert a strong claim that for the intents and purposes of acknowledging it as an activity that can be held under synonymous contexts as any sport with an agreed upon set of rules so as a tournament may be held, the question whether or not chess is a sport is rhetorical. For those who wish to categorize chess as strictly a "game" in lieu of a sport should in the least acknowledge that every other sport is initself a game, as well they should read this article to broaden their understanding. For some reason, some information went thorugh my head that Edgar Allen Poe asserted. Two types of athletes exist- one who exerts and trains himself physically and one who exerts himself cognitively; this is in his work "The Gold Bug." With this in mind, one can read where my bias for grounds exists.

    Good show.

  • 12 months ago

    alex_chen

    sport-an athletic activity requiring skill or physical prowess and often of a competitive nature

    chess requires skill people!!!! u can't teach an idiot to beat a grandmaster in a year!!!

  • 15 months ago

    r_k_ting

    Chess is chess! Why all this desperation to define it as a sport?

     

    "In other words, there is no principal difference between Magnus lifting his arm and sacking a kniggeth or Petter (Northug, Norwegian cross-country skier) lifting his poles and stroking himself forward;"

    The real difference between the two is that sport is a competition occuring in the physical world, while chess is a competition in an abstract world. A skier must adjust his physical shape to become aerodynamic, a dart player is controlling the flight of a physical object, and even a motor racer controls his speed through a turn based on the friction between the tyres and the racecourse. These are all sports.

    By contrast, Magnus is moving physical pieces of wood. However, the movement of these pieces is not based on any physical law, but are instead governed by abstract laws. That we can represent the movement of chess pieces entirely on a diagram via the internet is a big clue. Chess lacks this important physical component, and is not a sport.

  • 19 months ago

    mobidi

    ONLY Chess is a sport !( for Homo Sapiens).For others,sport is .....eatingWink

  • 19 months ago

    Phife_Dawg

    Sport has a different definition to different people. However, the majority of the world agrees that in order for something to be a sport, it must primarily be an athletic activity.

  • 19 months ago

    bwtaylor

    Basketball is not a mind sport, even though there is some modicum of thinking involved. Chess is not an atheletic sport, even though there is some physical motion and physical stamina can contribute to success. The dominant element of competition in chess is mental prowess, while in basketball it is athletic in nature. Both are sports.

    Sports are defined by the culture of competition that surrounds the activity, not the physicality of it. The phrase "atheletic sport" is not redundent. The phrase "mind sport" is not problematic either. 

  • 19 months ago

    Phife_Dawg

    By defninition, a sport involves a physical component. Playing a mental sport is the equivilant of saying that you went swimming in a waterless pool, it's just silly.

  • 19 months ago

    Phife_Dawg

    A sport to the mind is what we call a game. A sport has a physical component.

  • 19 months ago

    macwario

    chess is chess.

  • 19 months ago

    D0dle

    nice article :)

  • 19 months ago

    D0dle

    i would say chess is a sport, just not to the body, but to the mind. It slows down or even stops alzheimers disease, just like sport may stop or slow down Diabities.

  • 19 months ago

    FishMoves

    I love chess and I love sports, but chess is definitely not a sport by my definition.  A sport has a physical aspect involved that is fundamental to the sport and a direct impact as to how well someone would participate in it.  Ice hockey is a sport where players have to skate, shoot, and check-all very physical activities.  With golf, putting and driving are basic physical skills used.  So golf is a sport, maybe more of a precision sport rather than a physical or aerobic sport, but still a sport.  What are the physical apsects of chess?  Making a move?  Pressing the clock?  Recording the moves?  Not even in the same ballpark as either ice hockey or golf.

    This being said, it doesn't mean chess isn't competitive.  In fact, I believe at the top levels, it is every bit as competitive as any sport is.

  • 19 months ago

    Phife_Dawg

    "IIRC there was an event in London, called "Mind Sports Olympiad", and it sounds like a good classification: "mind sport" is a competitive activity without "athletic" component, but involving competition, complicated enough (so that we may prune tic-tac-toe, but probably not checkers), and taking to a higher level an activity that is a pastime (so that we can leave out taking exams)."

    "Mind Sport"?? Come on people, chess is a game, mind sport is just ridiculous. I'm sorry to dissapoint you all, chess is a game, a board game, it is not a sport.

  • 19 months ago

    diegofalcao

    Chess is a sport.

  • 19 months ago

    WalangAlam

    Ofcourse it is and more! Chess is beyond sports, it is an art as well! Chess has it's own Olympiad! At least in Asia it is recognized as a sport. It is part of the Asian games event held every four years.

  • 19 months ago

    nescitus

    IIRC there was an event in London, called "Mind Sports Olympiad", and it sounds like a good classification: "mind sport" is a competitive activity without "athletic" component, but involving competition, complicated enough (so that we may prune tic-tac-toe, but probably not checkers), and taking to a higher level an activity that is a pastime (so that we can leave out taking exams).

    In Poland, national chess organisation operates under rules designed for sports associations, which has some desired effects (governement subsidies) and some undesired (in order to play a couple of league games, I had to obtain a document from a doctor, stating that I'm fit enough).

    My take would be: sometimes chess is a sport, just as sometimes badminton is NOT a sport. There is a hell of a difference between a casual chess game (or a casual badminton game) and a tournament play. I remember coming home groggy after some particularly tense tournament encounters, and in the middle of a tournament I always worry about physical breakdown.

  • 19 months ago

    zephType44

    what should God to say us.

    i now to familier to KingJamesVersionBibleEnglish, and hebrew text.

    i taking a long time and master then how apply to language to chess.

    strong foundation is best for ours.

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