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The Tiger

  • GM Julio_Becerra
  • | Apr 13, 2011
  • | 10914 views
  • | 35 comments

Early Years

Tigran Petrosian was born to Armenian parents on the 17th of June, 1929 in Tiflis, Georgia, which was then a member of the Soviet Union. As a young boy, Petrosian was an excellent student and enjoyed studying, as did his brother Hmayak and sister Vartoosh. He learned to play chess at the age of 8, though his illiterate father Vartan encouraged him to continue studying, as he thought chess was unlikely to bring his son any financial success. Petrosian was orphaned during World War II and was forced to sweep streets to earn a living. It was about this time that his hearing began to deteriorate, a problem that afflicted him throughout his life.

In a 1969 interview with Time Magazine, he recalled:
I started sweeping streets in the middle of the winter and it was horrible. Of course there were no machines then, so we had to do everything by hand. Some of the older men helped me out. I was a weak boy. And I was ashamed of being a street sweeper—that's natural, I suppose. It wasn't so bad in the early morning when the streets were empty, but when it got light and the crowds came out I really hated it. I got sick and missed a year in school. We had a babushka, a sister of my father, and she really saved me. She gave me bread to eat when I was sick and hungry. That's when this trouble with my hearing started. I don't remember how it all happened. Things aren't very clear from that time.

World Champion

His results in the triennial Candidates Tournament, held to determine the challenger to the world champion, showed a steady improvement: fifth at Zürich in 1953, equal third at Amsterdam in 1956, third in Yugoslavia in 1959, and first at Curacao in 1962. In 1963 he defeated Mikhail Botvinnik 12.5–9.5 to become world chess champion. His patient, defensive style frustrated Botvinnik, who only needed to make one risky move for Petrosian to punish him. Petrosian is the only player to go through the Interzonal and the Candidates process undefeated on the way to the world championship match.

Petrosian defended his title in 1966, defeating Boris Spassky 12.5–11.5, the first World Champion to win a title match while champion since Alekhine beat Bogoljubov in 1934.

In 1968, he was granted an M.Phil. from Yerevan University for his thesis, "Chess Logic." In 1969 Spassky got his revenge, winning by 12.5–10.5 and taking the title.

He won four Soviet Championships (1959, 1961, 1969, and 1975).

 

Contributions to Chess

Petrosian introduced the exchange sacrifice for the sake of 'quality of position', where the time factor, which is so important in the play of Alekhine and Tal, plays hardly any role. Even today, very few players can operate confidently at the board with such abstract concepts. Before Petrosian no one had studied this. By sacrificing the exchange 'just like that', for certain long-term advantages, in positions with disrupted material balance, he discovered latent resources that few were capable of seeing and properly evaluating.

Petrosian was an expert against the King's Indian Defense, and he often played what is now known as the Petrosian System: 1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 g6 3.Nc3 Bg7 4e4 d6 5.Nf3 O-O 6.Be2 e5 7 d5 this variation closes the center early on in the game. One of the tactical ideas for White is to play Bg5, pinning Black's knight to his queen. Black can respond by either moving his queen or by playing ...h6, though the latter move weakens Black's kingside pawn structure. Two of Black's responses to the Petrosian variation were developed by grandmasters Paul Keres and Leonid Stein. The Keres Variation arises after 7 ... Nbd7 8.Bg5 h6 9.Bh4 g5 10. Bg3 Nh5 11.h4, and the Stein Variation begins an immediate queenside offensive with 7 ... a5.

The Queen's Indian Defense also has a variation developed by Petrosian: 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 b6 4.a3, with the idea of preventing ... Bb4+. This system received much attention in 1980 when it was used by the young Garry Kasparov to defeat several grandmasters. Today the Petrosian Variation is still considered the most pressing variation, with the greatest score in Master games. A common response for black is 4. ... c6, with the idea of eventually pushing forward with ... d5.

Other Petrosian variations can be found in the Grünfeld Defense after 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 d5 4.Nf3 Bg7 5.Bg5, and the French Defense after 1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 Bb4 4.e5 Qd7. Some authorities refer to a variation of the Caro-Kann defense with his name, along with former world champion Vassily Smyslov: the Petrosian–Smyslov variation, 1. e4 c6 2. d4 d5 3.Nc3 dxe4 4.Nxe4 Nd7.

In the Words of World Champions

The depth of Tigran’s approach to chess is the direct consequence of his clear mind and his rare insight into general aspects of chess, into subtleties of chess tactics and strategy. Petrosian performed a special kind of art in creating harmonious positions that were full of life, where the apparent absence of superficial dynamism was compensated by enormous inner energy. Every subtle change in the position was always taken into consideration in the context of a complex strategy that was not obvious to his opponents. – Garry Kasparov

Careful study of Petrosian's games is required to form a clear impression of him. He was, so to speak, a very "secretive" player. We can call Petrosian the first defender with a capital D. He was the first person to demonstrate that it is possible to defend virtually every position. Petrosian contributed a defensive element to chess - an element that is being developed more and more today. He showed that chess contains an enormous number of resources, including defensive ones. - Vladimir Kramnik

If we look in chess history for a "double" of Petrosian, we arrive at Capablanca. Petrosian is not a tiger that pounces on its prey, but rather a python, that smothers its victim, or a crocodile, waiting for hours for a convenient moment to land a decisive blow. Petrosian is an outstanding strategist. If he should begin to combine a little, he will be impossible to play against. - Max Euwe

Among all our grandmasters Petrosian possesses the most distinctive and original talent: he places his pieces so astutely, that all attacks on them prove very difficult. This is a subtle and rare style, to which it is hard to adapt. - Mikhail Botvinnik

Petrosian, of course, was a phenomenal chess talent; he played so deeply and interestingly, that he sometimes found ideas for his opponents that never even entered their heads. Petrosian had Capablanca's technique and Schechter’s sense of danger. - Mikhail Tal

and in his own Words

A strong player knows all the rules and laws of the game. A talented player knows everything that a strong player knows, but he also sees exceptions to the rules. But major chess talents (we call them geniuses) gradually transform these exceptions into new rules. And so on ad infinitum, since chess is inexhaustible. - Tigran Petrosian

Here are two further combinations of his to enjoy:

 

Comments


  • 12 months ago

    Ambassador_Spock

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  • 4 years ago

    prosperov

    Grandmaster Petrosian knew how to get results and i think it is unfair to label his style as boring coz he could stand up to the greatest attackers
  • 4 years ago

    LilitMatevosyan

    I am proud of being Armenian like Tigran Petrosyan.

  • 4 years ago

    madpawn

    Tigran Petrosian, a whole article on him and no reference to Nimzowitsch, the player from whom all his ideas of prophelactic defence, dynamism in the position, blockade and the mastery of the kniights in blocked positions came from. How could you talk about Perosian without mentioning Nizowitsch?

  • 4 years ago

    raffdoc

    Real master of his time!

  • 4 years ago

    diogens

    Yes, great player till he met Fischer (was in Buenos Aires?): 2,5-6,5. The great master of defense, blown up!!

    It's true they colluded at Curaçao to leave Fischer out of the Candidates, but probably they were following upper instructions, the bosses, the soviet "nomenklatura". That's why Botvinnik held his title so long & that's what makes Fischer a chess legend.

  • 4 years ago

    NimzoRoy

    Thanks for the article and puzzles, which should help dispel any notions of Petrosian being an all-around bore and/or unfathomable player - though I gotta admit some of his games are way too strategic for me to fathom although they're still enjoyable to play over. 

    One of my favorite Petrosian games is his win over Bobby Fischer in which Tiger played the FD MacCutcheon Variation - not exactly a "state-of-the-art" opening which may be why Bobby chose a very bad line as White. 

  • 4 years ago

    CARLOBOY1

    Tigran Petrosian, a World Champion of patience and deep strategic chess..  

  • 4 years ago

    Artemi

    I think his greatest contribution in opening theory is the system he adopt as white againts the King's Indian Defense ( two of the greatest chessplayer in history...Fischer and Kasparov have always have difficulty in facing this system...I myself experienced this as I a King's Indian player ) ..the Petrosian System...Fischer losses  two times to Tal in this sytem in the 1959 Candidate's Tournament...Kasparov lossed to Kramnik in this system!!!

  • 4 years ago

    Artemi

    He introduced some sort of control in the somewhat infinite galaxy of chess....his is a very unique contribution to our beloved game!!!

  • 4 years ago

    Streptomicin

    "It is to Petrosian's advantage that his opponents never know when he is suddenly going to play like Mikhail Tal." -Spassky

  • 4 years ago

    Credo111

    [COMMENT DELETED]
  • 4 years ago

    gambit156

    he is just superb!!!!!!

  • 4 years ago

    DylanAM

    A real master wouldn't have to collude with others to arrange draws beforehand (Keres, Geller, Petrosian, Korchnoi at Curacao 1962).

  • 4 years ago

    ranubis

    petrosian is only mistaken as a boring, all defensive player. i have seen some of his games where he early on puts up an unstoppable attack. he is only considered defensive because you will almost never see an undefended piece of his. that's also why a petrosian postition is a position where there is no undefended piece 

  • 4 years ago

    alfred27

    as they say don"t mess with petrosian"s hair

  • 4 years ago

    Cario

    Smile

  • 4 years ago

    zeej

    Petrosian's 19. Qxf6! against Ludek Pachman is one of my favorite moves, setting up the absurdly deep 21. Bg7!, which Fischer called "a real problem move."

    http://www.chessgames.com/perl/chessgame?gid=1104948

  • 4 years ago

    El_Gremio

    he checkmated spassky.SurprisedSmile

    that was impressive.

  • 4 years ago

    Burelo

    uno de mis jugadores predilectos en el juego posicional y la defensa, muchos demeritan a petrosian pro su juego poco arriesgado, pero su juego agresivo en algunas ocasiones ha tenido grandes resultados en figuras como Tal, Botvinnik, Fischer, Kasparov incluso, con quien puede darse el lujo de poseer empates en sus partidas jugadas.

     

    Un Grande aquí lo tenemos.

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