1. Romantic School
Gambit play. Striving for the initiative. Speculative sacrificial attacks.
2. Classical School
Occupation of the center with pawns. Natural piece development. Consideration of pawn-structure.
3. Hypermodern School
Control of the center with flank pawns, knights and/or bishops in fianchetto. Guerrilla knight play. Destabilising pawn-breaks.
4. Soviet School
Emphasis on dynamism. Acceptance of positional flaws in exchange for activity. Doctrine of research, training and preparation.
5. Unorthodox School
Obscure strategies/unusual tactics. Element of surprise. Psychology.
6. Matrix School
Early deployment of the Queen to provoke 'reflex' moves. Attempts to force quickest possible checkmate. Application of vector theory.
7. Defensive School
Construction of a small center. Most pawns/pieces not developed beyond the third rank. Hedgehog and Double-Fianchetto systems, etc.
8. New School
Appreciation of older-school concepts. EcIectic multi-faceted playing styles. Influenced by 21st century analysis technology.