Chess is a game played between two players using 32 pieces (16 each of two distinct colors) on a 64 square board.
The earliest known ancestor of modern chess was an Indian game called Chaturanga, where the knight, King and Rooks moved the same but there was no castling, two square move for the pawn and the Bishop and Queen where much weaker. It then moved to Persia where it was known as Chatrang, eventually making it's way through the still youthful Islamic Empire into Southern Spain. By the 1500's it had spread all through Europe and there where many different ways to play, including one where both King a Queen can move at the same time. The modern rules where adopted in Spain sometime in the 1500's.
Legend has it that the Queen's power on the chess board was an idea of Spanish chess players modeling Queen Isabella, arguably one of the most powerful female monarchs in European History.