Chess is a world-famous game played between two players using 32 pieces (16 each of two distinct colors) on a 64-square board of alternating colors (black and white, or, most commonly, light and dark).
The earliest known ancestor of modern chess was an Indian game called Chaturanga, where the knight, king, and rooks moved the same as in the modern game, but there was no castling or two-square move for the pawn, and the bishop and queen were much weaker. It then moved to Persia where it was known as Chatrang, eventually making its way through the still-youthful Islamic empire into southern Spain. By the 1500s, it had spread all throughout Europe and there were many different ways to play, including one variation where both king and queen can move at the same time. The modern rules were adopted in Spain sometime in the 1500s.
Legend has it that the queen's power on the chess board was an idea of the Spanish chess players modeling queen Isabella, arguably one of the most powerful female monarchs in European history.