• Last updated on 11/20/15, 6:42 AM.

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Chess is a two-player board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an eight-by-eight grid. Chess is played by millions of people worldwide in homes, urban parksclubsonlinecorrespondence, and in tournaments. In recent years, chess has become part of some school curricula.

Each player begins the game with 16 pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns. Each of the six piece types moves differently. The most powerful piece is the queen and the least powerful piece is the pawn. The objective is to 'checkmate' the opponent's king by placing it under an inescapable threat of capture. To this end, a player's pieces are used to attack and capture the opponent's pieces, while supporting their own. In addition to checkmate, the game can be won by voluntary resignation by the opponent, which typically occurs when too much material is lost, or if checkmate appears unavoidable. A game may also result in a draw in several ways.

Chess is believed to have originated in Persia, some time before the 7th century; the Indian game of chaturanga is also the likely ancestor of xiangqi and shogi. The pieces took on their current powers in Spain in the late 15th century; the rules were finally standardized in the 19th century. The first generally recognized World Chess ChampionWilhelm Steinitz, claimed his title in 1886.

The current World Champion is the Norwegian Magnus Carlsen. The World Championship is now controlled by FIDE, the game's international governing body. FIDE also organizes the Women's World Championship, the World Junior Championship, the World Senior Championship the Blitz and Rapid World Championships and the Chess Olympiad, a popular competition among teams from different nations. There is also a Correspondence Chess World Championship and a World Computer Chess Championship.

Chess is a recognized sport of the International Olympic Committee;[1] some national sporting bodies such as the Spanish Consejo Superior de Deportes also recognize chess as a sport.[2]

Online chess has opened amateur and professional competition to a wide and varied group of players. There are also many chess variants, with different rules, different pieces, and different boards.

Since the second half of the 20th century, computers have been programmed to play chess with increasing success, to the point where the strongest home computers play chess at a higher level than the best human players. Since the 1990s, computer analysis has contributed significantly to chess theory, particularly in the endgame. The computer Deep Blue was the first machine to overcome a reigning World Chess Champion in a match when it defeated Garry Kasparov in 1997.


  • 5 years ago · Quote · #41


    Degree 0 of History. Below than poor.

    For a good book of Chess History in English look at Richard Eales' Chess: The History of a Game.

    Or if you can find it, the "Bible": H.J.R.Murray "A History of Chess", 900p of pure erudition, published in 1913 still unsurpassed.

  • 5 years ago · Quote · #42


    it amazes  me how many people got a account and looked up chess though the article is interesting

  • 5 years ago · Quote · #43


    Great to know, how the game Chess has been evolved...

  • 5 years ago · Quote · #44


    "Immortal game" ...that's a nice name :D

  • 5 years ago · Quote · #45



  • 5 years ago · Quote · #46


    The Pawn and the King are going in the same box after the game!

  • 5 years ago · Quote · #47




    information overload!

  • 5 years ago · Quote · #48



  • 5 years ago · Quote · #49


    It is ironic 'Chaturanga' came back to India after Europeans had remodelled it (isabella as Shatranj (persian) or Chess (english) and 'Chaturanga' itself is now totally forgotten..thanks for this article..

    breaking it down the word 'Chaturanga' has the following meaning -

    Chaturanga is made of two words - 'Chatur' and 'anga'

    Chatur - intelligent/sharp/witty

    Anga - parts/pieces/components

    Thus going back in time 

    Chess-> Shatranj->Chaturanga (meaning 'Intelligent Pieces')

  • 4 years ago · Quote · #50


    it is the life

  • 4 years ago · Quote · #51


    you know , in Iran we still call this game ' shatranj' . it is the Persian name of chess.

  • 4 years ago · Quote · #52


    did u know in iran bishops of chess are in fact symbols of elephants?

  • 4 years ago · Quote · #53


    I've heard a legend that it was created either in India or Persia, bid by an absolutely bored King. He promise  to grant any wishes to whoever could create a game to keep him interested more than any other existent game.

    It is said that the inventor requested just one grain for the first square, and to double the amount in every consecutive square. Unknowngly the King was surprised by such a 'humble' request. However when he summoned the mathematicians of the court to figure out the amount of grain that would result after the end of this calculation, he realized that such amount did not exist in all the granaries of his Kingdom. The amount: 2 to the Power of 64, which I believe gives a number of 35 + digits, if a remember correctly. If anyone knows about this, and the resulting number,  please complement the story.

    Have fun

  • 4 years ago · Quote · #54


    in india is rook elefant

  • 4 years ago · Quote · #55


    Yep, we Indians invented it first!!!

  • 4 years ago · Quote · #56


    chaturanga was a nice game espcially playing with a dice who wanna play first with the high number of diced!!!

  • 4 years ago · Quote · #57



  • 4 years ago · Quote · #58


    Making chess an Olympic sport will surely increase its popularity.
  • 4 years ago · Quote · #59



  • 4 years ago · Quote · #60


    Way back when the Queen moved like the King and Bishops only moved 2 squares at a time, and pawns only one square on their first move (yawn) making Rooks (ie Castles) the most powerful pieces just as in real life castles were very powerful until the advent of modern cannon. So chess seems to have advanced along with technology and possibly owes a debt to Queen Isabella too, although my ancestors (Jews) certainly don't!

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