Garry Kasparov, originally named Weinstein, was born on April 13, 1963. In 1976, he was the strongest player in the world under age 13. He became a grandmaster at 17, the youngest Soviet champion at 18 and the youngest world champion at 22 years, 210 days. In his first international tournament, Baku 1979, he exceeded the Grandmaster norm and took first place as an unrated player. His first FIDE rating was 2500. He became the World Junior Champion in 1980 and co-champion of the USSR in 1981. In 1987 he wrote his autobiography, Child of Change. In 1993 he founded the Professional Chess Association (PCA), which he said later was his biggest mistake. He was the first Soviet to do a Western commercial. In May, 1997 he lost a match with the chess computer. DEEP BLUE. In 1993 he broke away from FIDE and defeated Nigel Short for the PCA World Championship. In 2000 he lost his title to Vladimir Kramnik in the Braingames World Chess Championship, but continues to be the highest rated chess player in the world. His FIDE rating has been as high as 2849. He has been the world’s #1 rated player since 1984. In 1989 he was the first person to top 2800. From 1981 to 1991 he did not lose a single chess event. He successfully defended his world chess championship title more times than any champion. His Pepsi ad, shown in the 2002 Superbowl, was nominated for an Oscar. From 1981 to 1990, Kasparov won 15 straight tournaments in a row. After winning Linares (but losing his last game to Topalov) in 2005, he announced his retirement from chess on March 10, 2005. His last FIDE rating was 2812. He is currently involved in Russian politics.