The first magazine devoted entirely to chess was Le Palamede, founded by La Bourdonnais in 1836. The first English chess magazine, The Philidorian, was edited by George Walker in 1838. The oldest existing chess magazine in the world is Deutsche Schachzeitung, founded in 1846. The first U.S. chess magazine may have been the American Chess Magazine, edited by Charles Stanley in 1846. At the same time, another American chess magazine appeared, The Chess Palladium and Mathematical Sphinx. The longest surviving English magazine, the British Chess Magazine, was started in 1881. The first Russian magazine, Shakhmatnyi listok, was published by Chigorin in 1876.