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|Kiev Monastery of the Caves.|
|Municipality||Kiev City Municipality|
|- Mayor||Leonid Chernovetskyi|
|Elevation||179 m (587 ft)|
|Population (2008 census)|
|- Density||3,299/km2 (8,544.4/sq mi)|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|- Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|Area code(s)||+380 44|
|License plate||AA (before 2004: КА,КВ,КЕ,КН,КІ,KT)|
|Sister cities||Ankara, Athens, Belgrade,
Brussels, Budapest, Chicago,
Chişinău, Edinburgh, Florence,
Helsinki, Kraków, Kyoto, Leipzig,
Minsk, Munich, Odense, Paris,
Pretoria, Riga, Rome,
Santiago de Chile, Sofia,
Stockholm, Tallinn, Tampere, Tbilisi,
Toronto, Toulouse, Warsaw,
Wuhan, Vienna, Vilnius, Pereira, Yerevan
Kiev, also known as Kyiv (Ukrainian: Київ (help·info), Kyiv, IPA: [ˈkɪjiw]; Russian: Ки́ев (help·info), Kiyev; see also Cities' alternative names), is the capital and the largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River. As of April 2007, official municipal estimates placed the population of Kiev at about 2.7 million inhabitants, although some much higher unofficial estimates are often published.
Kiev is an important industrial, scientific, educational and cultural centre of Eastern Europe. It is home to many high-tech industries, higher education institutions and world-famous historical landmarks. The city has an extensive infrastructure and highly developed system of public transport, including the Kiev Metro.
The name Kiev is said to derive from the name of Kyi, one of four legendary founders of the city (brothers Kyi, Shchek, Khoryv and sister Lybid'). During its history, Kiev, one of the oldest cities in Eastern Europe, passed through several stages of great prominence and relative obscurity. The city may have been founded in the 5th century as a trading post, perhaps part of the land of the early Slavs. It gradually acquired eminence as the centre of the East Slavic civilization, becoming in the tenth to twelfth centuries a political and cultural capital of Rus', a medieval East Slavic state. Completely destroyed during the Mongol invasion in 1240, the city lost most of its influence for the centuries to come. It was a provincial capital of marginal importance in the outskirts of the territories controlled by its powerful neighbors: first the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, followed by Poland and Russia. The city prospered again during the Russian industrial revolution in the late 19th century. After the turbulent period following the Russian Revolution of 1917, from 1921 onwards Kiev was an important city of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, and, from 1934, its capital. During World War II, the city again suffered significant damage, but quickly recovered in the post-war years remaining the third largest city of the Soviet Union. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union and the Ukrainian independence of 1991, Kiev remained the capital of Ukraine.
Geographically, Kiev belongs to the Polesia ecological zone (a part of the European mixed woods). However, the city's unique landscape distinguishes it from the surrounding region.
Kiev is located on both sides of the Dnieper River, which flows south through the city towards the Black Sea. The older right-bank (western) part of the city is represented by numerous woody hills, ravines and small rivers. It is a part of the larger Dnieper Upland adjoining the western bank of the Dnieper in its mid-flow. Kiev expanded to the Dnieper's lowland left bank (to the east) only in the twentieth century. Significant areas of the left-bank Dnieper valley were artificially sand-deposited, and are protected by dams.
The Dnieper River forms a branching system of tributaries, isles, and harbors within the city limits. The city is adjoined by the mouth of the Desna River and the Kiev Reservoir in the north, and the Kaniv Reservoir in the south. Both the Dnieper and Desna rivers are navigable at Kiev, although regulated by the reservoir shipping locks and limited by winter freeze-over.
In total, there are 447 bodies of open water within boundaries of Kiev, which include Dnieper itself, its reservoirs, and several small rivers, dozens of lakes and artificially created ponds. They occupy 7949 hectares of territory. Additionally, the city boasts of 16 developed beaches (totalling 140 hectares) and 35 near-water recreational areas (covering more than 1000 hectares). Not all water bodies are allowed for swimming.
Kiev has a continental humid climate. The warmest months are June, July, and August, with mean temperatures of 13.8 to 24.8 °C (56.9 to 76.7 °F). The coldest are December, January, and February, with mean temperatures of −4.6 to -1.1 °C (23.7 to 30.0 °F). The highest ever temperature recorded in the city was 39.4 °C (103.0 °F) on 31 July 1936. The coldest temperature ever recorded in the city was -32.2 °C (-26.0 °F) on 7 & 9 February 1929. Snow cover usually lies from mid-November to the end of March, with the frost-free period lasting 180 days on average, but surpassing 200 days in recent years.