Moscow

Moscow

AWARDCHESS
AWARDCHESS
Jan 31, 2009, 11:21 AM |
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Moscow

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Moscow (English)
Москва (Russian)

Red Square

Location of Moscow in Europe and Russia
Coordinates
55°45′8″N 37°35′56″E / 55.75222°N 37.59889°E / 55.75222; 37.59889Coordinates: 55°45′8″N 37°35′56″E / 55.75222°N 37.59889°E / 55.75222; 37.59889
Coat of Arms Flag
Political status
Federal district
Economic region
Federal city
Central
Central
Code 77
Area
Area 1,081 km² (417.4 sq mi)
Population (as of the 2002 Census)
Population
- Rank
- Density
10,470,318 inhabitants
1st
9,685.8/km² (25,086.1/sq mi)
Government
Head Yury Luzhkov
Legislative body City Duma
Charter Charter of Moscow
Events
Founded 1147
Other information
Postal code 101xxx–129xxx
Dialing codes +7 495, +7 499
Official website
http://www.mos.ru

Moscow (Russian: Москва́, romanised: Moskva, IPA:see also other names) is the capital and the largest city of the Russian Federation. It is also the largest city in Europe, with the Moscow metropolitan area ranking among the largest urban areas in the world. Moscow is a major political, economic, cultural, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the world.

It is located on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District, in the European part of Russia. Historically, it was the capital of the former Soviet Union, Russian Empire, Tsardom of Russia and the Grand Duchy of Moscow. It is the site of the Moscow Kremlin, which serves as the residence of the President of Russia. Russian parliament (Gosudarstvennaya Duma and Sovet Federacii) and Government of Russia are meeting also in Moscow.

Moscow is a major economic centre and is home to the largest number of billionaires in the world;[1] in 2008 Moscow was named the world's most expensive city for foreign employees for the third year in a row.[2]

It is home to many scientific and educational institutions, as well as numerous sport facilities. It possesses a complex transport system, that includes 3 international airports, 9 railroad terminals, and one of the world’s busiest metro systems which is famous for its architecture and artwork.

Contents

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[edit] Geography and climate

Satellite image of Moscow and suburbia

Moscow is situated on the banks of the Moskva River, which flows for just over 500 km through the East European Plain in central Russia. 49 bridges span the river and its canals within the city's limits.

Moscow's road system is centered roughly around the Kremlin at the heart of the city. From there, roads generally radiate outwards to intersect with a sequence of circular roads (“rings”).

The first and innermost major ring, Bulvarnoye Koltso (Boulevard Ring), was built at the former location of the sixteenth century city wall around that used to be called Bely Gorod (White Town).[3] The Bulvarnoye Koltso is technically not a ring; it does not form a complete circle, but instead a horseshoe-like arc that goes from the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour to the Yauza River. In addition, the Boulevard Ring changes street names numerous times throughout its journey across the city.

The second primary ring, located outside the Boulevard Ring, is the Sadovoye Koltso (Garden Ring). Like the Boulevard Ring, the Garden Ring follows the path of a sixteenth century wall that used to encompass part of the city.[3] The third ring, the Third Transport Ring, was completed in 2003 as a high-speed freeway.

The Fourth Transport Ring, another freeway, is under construction to further reduce traffic congestion. The outermost ring within Moscow is the Moscow Automobile Ring Road (often called the MKAD from the Russian Московская Кольцевая Автомобильная Дорога), which forms the approximate boundary of the city. Outside the city, some of the roads encompassing the city continue to follow this circular pattern seen inside city limits.

[edit] Climate

See also: Climate of Moscow

Moscow has a humid continental climate climate (Koppen climate classification Dfb) with warm, somewhat humid summers and long, cold winters. Typical high temperatures in the warm months of June, July and August are around 23 °C (73 °F), but during heat waves, that can occur anytime from may to september, daytime temperature highs often top 30 °C (86 °F) for sometimes 1 or 2 weeks; in the winter, temperatures normally drop to approximately −9 °C (15.8 °F), though there can be periods of warmth with temperatures rising above 0 °C (32 °F). The highest temperature ever recorded was 36.7 °C (98.1 °F)[4] in August 1936, and the lowest ever recorded was −42.2 °C (−44 °F) in January 1940.

Monthly rainfall totals vary minimally throughout the year, although the precipitation levels tend to be higher during the summer than during the winter. Due to the significant variation in temperature between the winter and summer months as well as the limited fluctuation in precipitation levels during the summer, Moscow is considered to be within a continental climate zone.

Average annual temperature in Moscow is 5.4 °C (41.7 °F), but in last years (2007, 2008) it was higher than 7 °C (45 °F)[5]. Last summer light night frost was in first half of 20 century[5].

[hide] Weather averages for Moscow 
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 8.6
(47)
8.3
(47)
17.5
(64)
28.0
(82)
33.2
(92)
34.7
(94)
36.5
(98)
36.7
(98)
32.3
(90)
24.0
(75)
12.6
(55)
9.6
(49)
36.7
(98)
Average high °C (°F) -5
(23)
-4
(25)
2
(36)
11
(52)
18
(64)
22
(72)
24
(75)
22
(72)
15
(59)
8
(46)
0
(32)
-4
(25)
9.1
(48)
Average low °C (°F) -8
(18)
-9
(16)
-5
(23)
2
(36)
8
(46)
12
(54)
14
(57)
12
(54)
8
(46)
3
(37)
-3
(27)
-8
(18)
2.6
(37)
Record low °C (°F) -42.2
(-44)
-38.2
(-37)
-32.4
(-26)
-21.0
(-6)
-7.5
(19)
-2.3
(28)
1.3
(34)
-1.2
(30)
-8.5
(17)
-16.1
(3)
-32.8
(-27)
-38.8
(-38)
-42.2
(-44)
Precipitation mm (inches) 46
(1.81)
36
(1.42)
33
(1.3)
38
(1.5)
52
(2.05)
84
(3.31)
90
(3.54)
80
(3.15)
67
(2.64)
66
(2.6)
60
(2.36)
53
(2.09)
705
(27.76)
Source: Pogoda.ru.net[6] 2009-01-08