Similar days to Valentine honoring love

Similar days to Valentine honoring love

AWARDCHESS
AWARDCHESS
Feb 17, 2009, 12:10 PM |
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Similar days honoring love

In the West

Europe

Part of a series on Love
Basic Aspects
Love
Love (scientific views)
Love (virtue)
Love (cultural views)
Human bonding
Historically
Courtly love
Greek love
Religious love
Types of emotion
Erotic love
Platonic love
Familial love
Romantic love
See also
Unrequited love
Problem of love
Interpersonal relationship
Sexuality
Sexual intercourse
Cultural views of love
Valentine's Day

Valentine's Day has regional traditions in the UK. In Norfolk, a character called 'Jack' Valentine knocks on the rear door of houses leaving sweets and presents for children. Although he was leaving treats, many children were scared of this mystical person. In Wales, many people celebrate Dydd Santes Dwynwen (St Dwynwen's Day) on January 25 instead of or as well as St Valentine's Day. The day commemorates St Dwynwen, the patron saint of Welsh lovers. In France, a traditionally Catholic country, Valentine's Day is known simply as "Saint Valentin", and is celebrated in much the same way as other western countries. In Spain Valentine's Day is known as "San Valentín" and is celebrated the same way as in the U.K, although in Catalonia it is largely superseded by similar festivities of rose and/or book giving on La Diada de Sant Jordi (Saint George's Day). In Portugal it's more commom referred to it as "Dia dos Namorados" (Boy/Girlfriend's Day).

In Denmark and Norway, Valentine's Day (14 Feb) is known as Valentinsdag. It is not celebrated to a large extent, but a lot people take time to eat a romantic dinner with their partner, to send a card to a secret love or give a red rose to their loved one. In Sweden it is called Alla hjärtans dag ("All Hearts' Day") and was launched in the 1960s by the flower industry's commercial interests, and due to influence of American culture. It is not an official holiday, but its celebration is recognized and sales of cosmetics and flowers for this holiday are only bested by those for Mother's Day.

In Finland Valentine's Day is called Ystävänpäivä which translates into "Friend's day". As the name indicates, this day is more about remembering all your friends, not only your loved ones. In Estonia Valentine's Day is called Sõbrapäev, which has a similar meaning.

In Slovenia, a proverb says that "St Valentine brings the keys of roots," so on February 14, plants and flowers start to grow. Valentine's Day has been celebrated as the day when the first works in the vineyards and on the fields commence. It is also said that birds propose to each other or marry on that day. Nevertheless, it has only recently been celebrated as the day of love. The day of love is traditionally March 12, the Saint Gregory's day. Another proverb says "Valentin - prvi spomladin" ("Valentine — first saint of spring"), as in some places (especially White Carniola) Saint Valentine marks the beginning of spring.

In Romania, the traditional holiday for lovers is Dragobete, which is celebrated on February 24. It is named after a character from Romanian folklore who was supposed to be the son of Baba Dochia. Part of his name is the word drag ("dear"), which can also be found in the word dragoste ("love"). In recent years, Romania has also started celebrating Valentine's Day, despite already having Dragobete as a traditional holiday. This has drawn backlash from many groups, reputable persons and institutions[31] but also nationalist organizations like Noua Dreaptǎ, who condemn Valentine's Day for being superficial, commercialist and imported Western kitsch.

Valentine's Day is called Sevgililer Günü in Turkey, which translates into "Sweethearts' Day".

According to Jewish tradition the 15th day of the month of Av - Tu B'Av (usually late August) is the festival of love. In ancient times girls would wear white dresses and dance in the vineyards, where the boys would be waiting for them (Mishna Taanith end of Chapter 4). In modern Israeli culture this is a popular day to pronounce love, propose marriage and give gifts like cards or flowers.

Central and South America

In Guatemala, Valentine's Day is known as "Día del Amor y la Amistad" (Day of Love and Friendship). Although it is similar to the United States' version in many ways, it is also common to see people do "acts of appreciation" for their friends.[32]

In Brazil, the Dia dos Namorados (lit. "Day of the Enamored", or "Boyfriends'/Girlfriends' Day") is celebrated on June 12, when couples exchange gifts, chocolates, cards and flower bouquets. This day was chosen probably because it is the day before the Festa junina’s Saint Anthony's day, known there as the marriage saint, when traditionally many single women perform popular rituals, called simpatias, in order to find a good husband or boyfriend. The February 14's Valentine's Day is not celebrated at all, mainly for cultural and commercial reasons, since it usually falls too little before or after Carnival, a major floating holiday in Brazil — long regarded as a holiday of sex and debauchery by many in the country[33] — that can fall anywhere from early February to early March.

In Venezuela, in 2009, President Hugo Chavez said in a meeting to his supporters for the upcoming referendum vote on February 15, that "since on the 14th, there will be no time of doing nothing, nothing or next to nothing ... maybe a little kiss or something very superficial", he recommended people to celebrate a week of love after the referendum vote.[34]

In most of South America the Día del amor y la amistad (lit. "Love and Friendship Day") and the Amigo secreto ("Secret friend") are quite popular and usually celebrated together on the 14 of February (one exception is Colombia, where it is celebrated on September 20). The latter consists of randomly assigning to each participant a recipient who is to be given an anonymous gift (similar to the Christmas tradition of Secret Santa).

Asia

Thanks to a concentrated marketing effort, Valentine's Day is celebrated in some Asian countries with Singaporeans, Chinese and South Koreans spending the most money on Valentine's gifts.[35]

In Japan, in 1960, Morinaga, one of the biggest Japanese confectionery companies, originated the present custom that only women may give chocolates to men. In particular, office ladies will give chocolate to their co-workers. One month later, in March 14, there is the White Day, created by the Japanese National Confectionery Industry Association as a "reply day", where men are expected to return the favour to those who gave them chocolates on Valentine's Day. Unlike western countries, gifts such as candies, flowers, or dinner dates are uncommon. It has become an obligation for many women to give chocolates to all male co-workers. A man's popularity can be measured for how many chocolate they receive on that day; the amount of chocolate received is a touchy issue for men, and they will only comment on it after getting assurances that the amount will not be made public. This is known as giri-choko (義理チョコ), from the words giri ("obligation") and choko, ("chocolate"), with unpopular co-workers receiving only "ultra-obligatory" chō-giri choko cheap chocolate. This contrasts with honmei-choko (本命チョコ); chocolate given to a loved one. Friends, especially girls, may exchange chocolate referred to as tomo-choko (友チョコ); from tomo meaning "friend".[36]

In South Korea, women give chocolate to men on February 14, and men give non-chocolate candy to women on March 14. On April 14 (Black Day), those who did not receive anything on the 14th of Feb or March go to a Chinese restaurant to eat black noodles and "mourn" their single life. Koreans also celebrate Pepero Day on November 11, when young couples give each other Pepero cookies. The date '11/11' is intended to resemble the long shape of the cookie. The 14th of every month marks a love-related day in Korea, although most of them are obscure. From January to December: Candle Day, Valentine's Day, White Day, Black Day, Rose Day, Kiss Day, Silver Day, Green Day, Music Day, Wine Day, Movie Day, and Hug Day.[37]

In China, the common situation is the man gives chocolate, flowers or both to the woman that he loves. In Chinese, Valentine's Day is called (simplified Chinese: 情人节; traditional Chinese: 情人節; pinyin: qīng rén jié).

In the Philippines, Valentine's Day is called "Araw ng mga Puso" or "Hearts Day". It is usually marked by a steep increase in the prices of flowers.

Similar Asian traditions

In Chinese culture, there is an older observance related to lovers, called "The Night of Sevens" (Chinese: 七夕; pinyin: Qi Xi). According to the legend, the Cowherd star and the Weaver Maid star are normally separated by the milky way (river) but are allowed to meet by crossing it on the 7th day of the 7th month of the Chinese calendar.

An observance on the same day in Korea is called Chilseok, but its association with romance has long faded.[citation needed]

In Japan, a slightly different version of 七夕 (called Tanabata, which is said to mean 棚機 a weaver for a god) is celebrated, on July 7 on the Gregorian calendar. The legend behind it is similar to the Chinese one.[citation needed] However, it is never regarded that the celebration is even remotely related with the St. Valentine's Day or lovers giving gifts to each other.

Conflict with religious fundamentalists

India

In India, Valentine's Day is explicitly discouraged by Hindu fundamentalists.[38] Each year there are violent clashes between shopkeepers dealing in Valentine related items and Shiv Sena die-hards.[38] Especially in Mumbai and surrounding areas Bal Thackeray and others sent out signals before the day warning people not having to do anything with Valentine.[39] Those who violate this are dealt with harshly by baton-holding brigands of Shiv Sena who lark in public places especailly parks etc. chasing young people holding hands and others suspected to be lovers.

The Middle East

Today in Iran Valentine's Day is currently celebrated in Iran despite some restrictions made by government; young Iranian boys and girls are seen on this day going out and buying gifts and celebrating.

In Saudi Arabia in 2008, religious police banned the sale of all Valentine's Day items, telling shop workers to remove any red items, as the day is considered an un-Islamic holiday. This ban created a black market of roses and wrapping paper.[40]

See also

References

  1. ^ Leigh Eric Schmidt, "The Fashioning of a Modern Holiday: St. Valentine's Day, 1840-1870" Winterthur Portfolio 28.4 (Winter 1993), pp. 209-245.
  2. ^ Leigh Eric Schmidt, "The Commercialization of the calendar: American holidays and the culture of consumption, 1870-1930" Journal of American History 78.3 (December 1991) pp 890-98.
  3. ^ a b "American Greetings: The business of Valentine's day". http://pressroom.americangreetings.com/archives/val08/valbiz08.html.2Fpressroom.americangreetings.com%2Farchives%2Fval08%2Fvalbiz08.html&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Valentine%27s_Day"> 
  4. ^ Henry Ansgar Kelly, in Chaucer and the Cult of Saint Valentine ((Leiden: Brill) 1986, accounts for these and further local Saints Valentine (Ch. 6 "The Genoese Saint Valentine and the observances of May") in arguring that Chaucer had an established tradition in mind, and (pp 79ff) linking the Valentine in question to Valentine, first bishop of Genoa, the only Saint Valentine honoured with a feast in springtime, the season indicated by Chaucer. Valentine of Genoa was treated by Jacobus of Verazze in his Chronicle of Genoa (Kelly p. 85).
  5. ^ Oxford Dictionary of Saints, s.v. "Valentine": "The Acts of both are unreliable, and the Bollandists assert that these two Valentines were in fact one and the same."
  6. ^ "Valentine of Rome". http://www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintv06.htm.2Fwww.catholic-forum.com%2Fsaints%2Fsaintv06.htm&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Valentine%27s_Day"> 
  7. ^ "Saint Valentine's Day: Legend of the Saint". http://www.novareinna.com/festive/saintval.html.2Fwww.novareinna.com%2Ffestive%2Fsaintval.html&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Valentine%27s_Day"> 
  8. ^ "Valentine of Terni". http://www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintv90.htm.2Fwww.catholic-forum.com%2Fsaints%2Fsaintv90.htm&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Valentine%27s_Day"> 
  9. ^ "Basilica of Saint Valentine in Terni". http://www.virtualmuseum.ca/Exhibitions/Valentin/English/6/622.php3.en.wikipedia.org:Valentine%27s_Day"> 
  10. ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia: St. Valentine". http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15254a.htm.2Fwww.newadvent.org%2Fcathen%2F15254a.htm&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Valentine%27s_Day"> 
  11. ^ The present Roman Martyrology records, at February 14, "In Rome, on the Via Flaminia near the Milvian Bridge: St. Valentine, martyr."
  12. ^ Calendarium Romanum ex Decreto Sacrosancti Œcumenici Concilii Vaticani II Instauratum Auctoritate Pauli PP. VI Promulgatum (Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis, MCMLXIX), p. 117
  13. ^ Legenda Aurea, "Saint Valentine".
  14. ^ a b Materials provided by American Greetings, Inc. to History.com
  15. ^ History of Valentine's day, TheHolidaySpot.com
  16. ^ Jack B. Oruch, "St. Valentine, Chaucer, and Spring in February" Speculum 56.3 (July 1981:534-565)
  17. ^ William M. Green The Lupercalia in the Fifth Century Classical Philology Vol. 26, No. 1 (Jan. 1931), pp60‑69 pp60‑69
  18. ^ Oruch, Jack B., "St. Valentine, Chaucer, and Spring in February," Speculum, 56 (1981): 534-65. Oruch's survey of the literature finds no association between Valentine and romance prior to Chaucer. He concludes that Chaucer is likely to be "the original mythmaker in this instance."[1]
  19. ^ "Henry Ansgar Kelly, Valentine's Day / UCLA Spotlight". http://spotlight.ucla.edu/faculty/henry-kelly_valentine/.2Fspotlight.ucla.edu%2Ffaculty%2Fhenry-kelly_valentine%2F&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Valentine%27s_Day"> 
  20. ^ "Chaucer: The Parliament of Fowls". http://www.wsu.edu/~delahoyd/chaucer/PF.html.2Fwww.wsu.edu%2F%7Edelahoyd%2Fchaucer%2FPF.html&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Valentine%27s_Day"> 
  21. ^ Kelly, Henry Ansgar, Chaucer and the Cult of Saint Valentine (Brill Academic Publishers, 1997), ISBN 90-04-07849-5. Kelly gives the saint's day of the Genoese Valentine as May 3 and also claims that Richard's engagement was announced on this day. [2]
  22. ^ Calendar of the Saints: 2 May; Saint Patrick's Church: Saints of May 2
  23. ^ Oruch 1981:539.
  24. ^ Domestic Violence, Discourses of Romantic Love, and Complex Personhood in the Law - [1999 MULR 8; (1999) 23 Melbourne University Law Review 211]
  25. ^ "Court of Love: Valentine's Day, 1400". http://www.virtualmuseum.ca/Exhibitions/Valentin/English/4/422.php3.en.wikipedia.org:Valentine%27s_Day"> 
  26. ^ History Channel.
  27. ^ Schmidt 1993:209-245.
  28. ^ Quoted in Schmidt 1993:209.
  29. ^ Leigh Eric Schmidt, "The Fashioning of a Modern Holiday: St. Valentine's Day, 1840-1870" Winterthur Portfolio 28.4 (Winter 1993), pp. 209-245.
  30. ^ Leigh Eric Schmidt, "The Commercialization of the calendar: American holidays and the culture of consumption, 1870-1930" Journal of American History 78.3 (December 1991) pp 890-98.
  31. ^ Valentine`s Day versus Dragobete (Romanian)
  32. ^ "Día del Amor y la Amistad". http://www.contactomagazine.com/sanvalentin0203.htm.2Fwww.contactomagazine.com%2Fsanvalentin0203.htm&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Valentine%27s_Day"> 
  33. ^ The Psychology of Carnaval, TIME Magazine, February 14, 1969
  34. ^ Video of Chavez joking about Valentine's day, youtube.com, 2009-01-31
  35. ^ Domingo, Ronnel. Among Asians, Filipinos dig Valentine's Day the most. Philippine Daily Inquirer, February 14, 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-21.
  36. ^ Yuko Ogasawara (1998). University of California Press. ed. Office Ladies and Salaried Men: Power, Gender, and Work in Japanese Companies (illustrated ed.). Berkeley: Univ. of California Press. pp. 98–113,142–154,156,163. ISBN 0520210441. http://books.google.com/books?id=9_yjfAZo4jIC&pg=PA98&vq=valentine+day&dq=japan+chocolate+saint+valentin&lr=&client=opera&hl=es&source=gbs_search_s&cad=0.2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3D9_yjfAZo4jIC%26pg%3DPA98%26vq%3Dvalentine%2Bday%26dq%3Djapan%2Bchocolate%2Bsaint%2Bvalentin%26lr%3D%26client%3Dopera%26hl%3Des%26source%3Dgbs_search_s%26cad%3D0&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Valentine%27s_Day"> 
  37. ^ Korea rivals U.S. in romantic holidays, Centre Daily Times, February 14, 2009.
  38. ^ a b Arkadev Ghoshal & Hemangi Keneka (2009-02-14). "V-Day turns into battlefield". Times of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Nagpur/V-Day_turns_into_battlefield/articleshow/4127811.cms.2Ftimesofindia.indiatimes.com%2FNagpur%2FV-Day_turns_into_battlefield%2Farticleshow%2F4127811.cms&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Valentine%27s_Day"> 
  39. ^ A man holding a banner in Mumbai on Valentine's Day protesting the holiday http://www.channelnewsasia.com/imagegallery/store/newsinpicture/phpiuR1xD.jpg
  40. ^ BBC News. "Saudis clamp down on valentines". http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7239005.stm.en.wikipedia.org:Valentine%27s_Day">