CHESS IN JAPAN AND MONGOLIA
- The captured pieces may be reused by the captor and played as a part of the captor's forces.
- Pawns capture as they move, one square straight ahead.
- The board is 9×9, with a second queen (called a gold general) on the other side of the king.
Chess is recorded from Mongolian-inhabited areas, where the pieces are now called:
- King: Noyon – Ноён – lord
- Queen: Bers / Nohoi – Бэрс / Нохой – dog (to guard the livestock)
- Bishop: Temē – Тэмээ – camel
- Knight: Morĭ – Морь – horse
- Rook: Tereg – Тэрэг – cart
- Pawn: Hū – Хүү – boy (the piece often showed a puppy)
Names recorded from the 1880s by Russian sources, quoted in Murray, among the Soyot people (who at the time spoke the Soyot Turkic language) include: merzé (dog), täbä (camel), ot (horse), ōl (child) and Mongolian names for the other pieces.
The change with the queen is likely due to the Arabic word firzān or Persian word farzīn (= "vizier") being confused with Turkic or Mongolian native words (merzé = "mastiff", bar or bars = "tiger", arslan = "lion").
Chess in Mongolia is now played following standard rules.