Chessopedia: Online Chess Encylopedia


  • Turk

    • 89 Reads
    • | 89 Reads

    Nickname of the first automaton.  Made by Wolfgang von Kempelen in 1789.  Operators included Allgaier in 1809, Weyle in 1818, Boncourt in 1818, William Lewis in 1818 to 1819, Mouret in 1820, and Schlumberger (1826 to 1838).  It was ... Read More »

  • Sicilian Defence, Taimanov Variation

    • 83 Reads
    • | 83 Reads

    The Taimanov Variation of the Sicilian Defence arises after the moves 1 e4 c5 2 Nf3 e6 3 d4 cd4 4 Nd4 Nc6.  An equivalent move order is 1 e4 c5 2 Nf3 Nc6 3 d4 cd4 4 Nd4 e6.  The move order with 2...e6 is regarded as the standard move ord... Read More »

  • Simutowe, Amon

    • 80 Reads
    • | 80 Reads

    Amon Simutowe, born in 1982, is a chess player from Zambia who made his 3rd Grandmaster norm at Arnheim, Netherlands in August, 2007.  He is the first sub-Saharan African to become a Grandmaster.  His current Elo rating is 2421.&nbs... Read More »

  • Prisons and chess

    • 74 Reads
    • | 74 Reads

    In 1960 Bobby Fischer gave a simultaneous exhibition at Rikers Island prison.  He defeated all 20 prisoners while 2,400 inmates watched the exhibition and the prison band played.  In 1971 a prisoner failed to return to Western Penitentia... Read More »

  • Vachier-Lagrave, Maxime

    • 74 Reads
    • | 74 Reads

    Maxime Vachier-Lagrave, born October 21, 1990, is a French Grandmaster.  In 2002, he was 2nd in the World Under-14 Championship.  In 2005, he became a Grandmaster at the age of 14 years, 4 months, the 7th youngest GM in history and the 2nd young... Read More »

  • Gonzalez, Renier

    • 70 Reads
    • | 70 Reads

    Renier Gonzales, born in 1972, is a chess player from Miami (originally from Cuba) who has made his 3rd and final Grandmaster norm in Spain (his first GM norm was at Foxwoods Open 2004; his 2nd GM norm was at Lindsborg 2004).  He st... Read More »

  • Stalemate

    • 65 Reads
    • | 65 Reads

    The rule regarding stalemate first appeared in Europe in A. Saul's Famous Game of Chesse-Play, published in 1614.  In England, the player who gave stalemate lost the game.  In Italy and France stalemate counted as a draw.  In Sp... Read More »

  • Canada

    • 58 Reads
    • | 58 Reads

    Chess has been played in Canada since at least 1759.  General Sir John Hale and General Wolfe played chess during the taking of Quebec in 1759.  The Montreal Chess Club was founded in 1844.  The Canadian Chess Association (CCA) was ... Read More »

  • POW

    • 58 Reads
    • | 58 Reads

    In almost every war with Prisoners of War (POW), POWs have credited chess literally with saving their lives.  Any many POW camps, chess playing was the main diversion.  During World War II, POWs played chess with their German guards to d... Read More »

  • Ratings

    • 58 Reads
    • | 58 Reads

    The first organization to adopt a numerical rating system was the Correspondence Chess League of America in 1933.  The first USCF rating list appeared in the November 20, 1950 issue of Chess Life.  Ken Harkness rated 2,306 players from e... Read More »