In 1993, Maurice Ashley, born March 6, 1966, became the first African-American International Master in U.S. history. He is the first African-American Grandmaster (1999). He won the Marshall Chess Club Championship in 1993. In 1997, he tied for 1st in the Bermuda Open. He was born in Jamaica and coached the Harlem Raging Rooks, which won the National youth title in 1991. He is the author of Chess for Success.