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John Cochrane (1798-1978) was a Scottish master and lawyer who spent half his life in India. He played chess in London while on vacation. In 1815 he was a second lieutenant on the HMS Bellerophon, which transported Napoleon to his last exile on the island of Helena. In 1822 he published his Treatise on Chess. In 1824, just before he went to India, he suggested that the London team play 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 (Scotch Opening) in their correspondence match with Edinburgh. In 1829 he wrote a book on the Muzio Gambit, published in India. Cochrane is credited with the Cochrane Gambit (1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nf6 3.Nxe5 d6 4.Nxf7).