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Reuben Fine (1914-1993) was a U.S. Grandmaster (1950) and one of the best chessplayers in the U.S. in the 1930s. He took first place in 23 of the 27 important events in his chess career. During World War II he was employed by the Navy to calculate where enemy submarines might surface based on positional probability. He was also a translator who could speak French, Spanish, Italian, Dutch, Yiddish, and German. He later did research on Japanese Kamikaze attacks. He gave up chess to become a psychoanalyst (PhD in psychology). In 1956 the National Psychological Association for Psychoanalysis published his work, The Psychology of the Chess Player. The book is a Freudian account of the game of chess. The king is held to represent the father, while the queen is the mother. The other pieces are taken to be phallic symbols. Fine won 8 U.S. Opens but never the U.S. Closed Championship. He was the only player to have a total plus score in his games against world champions without being a world champion himself.