Ernst Franz Gruenfeld (1893-1962) was an Austrian chess player and Grandmaster (1950). He was one of the top 10 players in the world in the 1920s. He lost a leg in early childhood. He was supposed to have one of the best memories for chess openings than any other player. He introduced the Gruenfeld Defense in 1922 during the Bad Pistyan tournament. He was German champion in 1923. He was married and had one daughter. He died in Vienna of obesity in 1962.