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Bernhard Horwitz (1807-1885) was a German-born card player(specialized in miniatures) and chess study composer. In 1845, he settled in England and began teaching chess. In 1846, he lost as match with Howard Staunton, losing 14 games, winning 7, and drawing 3. He won the first study-composing chess tournament, held in 1862. Along with Josef Kling, he wrote Chess Studies and End-Games in 1851, reprinted in 1884 with 208 endgame studies. He was one of the Berlin Pleiades. He lent his name to the Horwitz Bishops, which are two bishops working in tandem on adjacent diagonals.