Johann Loewenthal (1810-1876) was a Hungarian player and one of the top 10 players of the 1850s. In 1848 he came to the United States to escape the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. When the regime was overthrown in 1849, he fled to New York. In 1850 he moved to Cincinnati where he established a cigar divan and gave chess lessons. His customers paid his fare to the London International Tournament in 1851, but he got knocked out in the first round. Because of his early loss, he felt too embarrassed to return to the United States. Staunton found him a job as secretary to the St. George’s Chess Club in London. He invented the demonstration chess board in 1857. He organized the second international tournament ever held, London 1862. He was considered the best opening theorist of his day.