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Ludek Pachman (1924-2003) was a Grandmaster (1954) who was imprisoned twice in Czechoslovakia after openly protesting the Soviet occupation of his land in 1968. He had been editor of one of the daily underground newspapers published illegally in Prague. He was twice imprisoned in 1969 and 1970. He was beaten and suffered a broken skull and backbone. He won the Czech championship 7 times between 1946 and 1966. He moved to Germany in 1972 and changed his last name from Pachman to Pachmann. In 1975 he wrote Checkmate in Prague. In 1976, he qualified for the Interzonal. In 1978, he won the West German championship. He was the author of 80 chess books.