Louis Paulsen (1833-1891) was the second prize winner (after Paul Morphy) in the first American Chess Congress in 1857. He was born in Germany but emigrated to America in 1854 with his family and established a distillery and a tobacco trade in Dubuque, Iowa, and in 1858 he established the Dubuque Chess Club. he was probably the number two chess player in the world from 1858 to 1873. The Paulsen variation of the Sicilian Defense is 1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 e6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 a6. Paulsen’s sister, Amalie, was the first woman to beat a master. His father taught chess to Louis, his two older brothers, and his two sisters. Louis was able to play 15 games simultaneously blindfolded.