Eugene Rousseau was born in France in 1810 and was a distant relative to Jean Jacques Rousseau. In 1839, he lost a 100-game match to Kieseritzky at the Café de la Regeance. Rousseau came to the United States in 1841, settling in New Orleans. In 1841, he lost to John Schulten in their first match in New Orleans (+10-11=0). In their second match in 1841, Rousseau defeated Schulten (+7-4=0). In 1842, he drew a match with B. Oliver (5.5-5.5). In 1843, Rousseau defeated Schulten in a match in New York (+13-8=0). In December 1845, Rousseau played Charles Henry Stanley at the Sazerac Coffee House in New Orleans for a stake of $1,000, winner-take-all. It was the first organized chess event in the United States and the first chess event held for the purpose of recognizing the best player in the United States. The term “US Champion” did not exist at the time. The match was to be won by the first player to win 15 games, draws not counting. There was no time limit to the games. Rousseau lost the match (+8-15=8). Rousseau’s second was Ernest (Don Tomas Augusto) Morphy, Paul Morphy’s uncle. Paul Morphy attended the match at the age of 8 and became interested in chess. In 1850, he lost a match with J. Lowenthal (+0-5). In 1867, Rousseau played in an international tournament in Paris with 12 other players. He took last place with 4 points out of 23. The tournament was won by Ignatz Kolisch. Rousseau died in 1870.