The Cape Town Chess Club in South Africa was founded in 1885. Competitive chess began in 1891. The first South African championship was held in 1892 and won by E. Roberts and A. Rivett. South Africa was banned from FIDE from 1977 to 1992 because of its apartheid practices. Players participating in South African events have also been banned from FIDE events. Players banned have included Miguel Quinteros, Ludek Pachman, Karl Robatsch, and H. Kestler. Individual sports players from South Africa were always allowed to compete around the world in any sporting event except chess. Chess was the only activity in which even chess players from South Africa were not allowed to compete outside their own country.