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# Weak Color Complexes Explained

IM David Pruess Avg Rating: 1358 Strategy

Being sensitive to weak color complexes provides extremely important insight into positional and tactical chess play. It often shapes the entire middlegame struggle, and informs the decisions made as early as the opening phase of the game. Yet many players don't even know what a "weak color complex" is; and many others have heard of it, but partly wonder if it's an artificial abstraction invented by secret grand mages of chess's professional society in order to cloud their art in obscurity. </p> But weak color complexes most definitely do exist, and-- if you have already acquired some basic calculation skills, and put a serious dent in the frequency of your blunders-- you need to have some idea of what they are in order to get a grasp on the true nature of chess. </p> This exhortation is followed by an invitation: work your way through the introductory course offered here, and I promise you will:</p> - Know what a weak color complex is;</p> - Be able to look at a position and determine whether it has a weak color complex as a feature;</p> - Know a couple ways to create a weak color complex;</p> - Know a couple ways to exploit a weak color complex, and the sad sod saddled with it.</p> Plus, you'll have a better eye for when to look for tactical blows, you'll become wittier, fitter, and smarter!

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• ## Restriction 1

At the heart of why a weak color complex can be a problem is this concept: it restricts the opponent's choices. There will be squares they can't move their pieces on; and there will be squares they need to defend, but only one of their pieces is able to defend it. This will hamper their ability to move their pieces. Here is the first of two examples that should give you a concrete understanding of how this restriction works.
• ## Restriction 2

Another example of restriction from the same position.
• ## Basic Exploitation

This position shows a classic complex of weak dark squares on the black kingside. Now you will find the most classic way of exploiting that weakness (converting it into another, more tangible advantage).
• ## Basic Exploitation 2

The black kingside is once again weak on what color squares? Dark squares!
• ## Paralyzing Domination

We will see another way to take advantage of weak dark squares here: domination. Sometimes if you take over the weak color complex, you can restrict the movement and coordination of the opponent's pieces almost to nothing. This is called "Dominating Paralysis."
• ## Weak Color Complexes are Hard to Repair

In the past two examples, you saw immediate, direct exploitations of weak color complexes. However, it is very important to note, that you do not always need to capitalize with immediate tactics. In fact, it's often quite difficult for someone to repair a weak color complex; they are more likely to be able to drum up counterplay elsewhere, than to defend the weakness once it exists. Play through this example to see how a weak color complex can persist for a long-term persecution. **Warning** this...
• ## Converting an Exchange

When trying to convert the advantage of a rook v. a bishop, you very often need to try to win the game on the opposite color of squares of the bishop the opponent has. Especially if they are unlucky enough to have pawns on the same color as their bishop, you should look for opportunities to just play around their bishop and pawns on the weak squares of the opposite color.
• ## Creating a Weak Color Complex

So far, we've mostly handed you a weak color complex and asked you to exploit it. In this position you will also learn a technique for creating such a weakness. Then we'll exploit it as well, for the fun of it.
• ## Yet Another Exploit

White has offered a queen trade. He has a weak color complex, which hopefully by now you can recognize.
• ## Weak Diagonals or Weak Pawns?

Ok, that last one was a trick. But now you are faced with a real queen trade offer; how do you evaluate your options here? The presence of opposite colored bishops should encourage you to think about potential weak color complexes.
• ## Probing

Here we see a typical operation to create a weak color complex, and another to exploit it.
• ## Another Way to Use those Squares!

Continued position from the previous lesson. Black has played a move to build counterplay on the queenside.
• ## Restriction 3

Another good tactic to know, which also illustrates how a weak color complex restricts one's possibilities.
• ## More on Trading

You may recognize this from a previous position. Let's imagine that black has recognized that there is immediate attacking danger from the possibility of Qh6 by white, and tried to gain space on the kingside with the immediate f5.
• ## An Exercise

A puzzle taken from the previous lesson.
• ## Keeping up the Pressure

Another continuation from the lesson "more on trading." Here, through a long example, you will learn some more about how the weak color complex can play out over time. **Warning** this lesson is 34 moves long! It warrants a full hour of study for a 1600-level player!
• ## Creating a Weak Color Complex 2

In this lesson, black does not have a weak color complex yet. However, it is possible to "give" him one. How thoughtful and generous of you!
• ## Trading for an Absolute Diagonal

Another technique that comes into play when you are working against a weak color complex. This is part strategy and part tactic.
• ## Infiltrating the Enemy

Sometimes it's tricky to make progress despite a promising positional advantage.
• ## Accessing the Weak Squares

You must stay alert at all times-- for sometimes the exploitation of a weak color complex is strategic and sometimes it is tactical. Sometimes it is exploited through long and patient cultivation, and other times, you must pounce on opportunities that pop up.
• ## Bonus Exercise 1

This is a position from opening theory, but the theme comes up in a variety of positions and openings.
• ## Bonus Exercise 2

Another little test of what you've learned.
• ## Bonus Exercise 3

Here's a harder exercise for you! The position comes from "Another Way to Use those Squares."
• ## Two Tools for Highlighting a Weak Color Complex

This is another position derived from "Keeping up the Pressure." Here we will see two more handy tools for taking advantage of an opponent's weak color complex.

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