Jinsi ya Kucheza Chess: Kanuni na Misingi

It's never too late to learn how to play chess - the most popular game in the world! Learning the rules of chess is easy:

Step 1. How to Setup the Chessboard

Mwanzoni mwa mchezo ubao unatandazwa ili kila mchezaji awe na mraba mweupe (ama mwangaza) katika pembe ya chini ya kulia kwake. Kisha vipande vya chess vinapangiliwa mtindo mmoja pande zote mbili. Mstari (au ngazi) wa pili unajazwa na mateka. Ngome wanaenda pemebeni, halafu farasi wanafuatia, wakifuatiwa na maaskofu, na mwisho ni malkia, ambaye mara zote yeye huendana na rangi yake mwenyewe inayowakilisha upande aliopo (malkia mweupe upande wa nyeupe, malkia mweusi upande wa nyeusi), na mfalme kwenye mraba unaosalia.

How to Setup the Chessboard

Step 2. How the Chess Pieces Move

Each of the 6 different kinds of pieces moves differently. Pieces cannot move through other pieces (though the knight can jump over other pieces), and can never move onto a square with one of their own pieces. However, they can be moved to take the place of an opponent's piece which is then captured. Pieces are generally moved into positions where they can capture other pieces (by landing on their square and then replacing them), defend their own pieces in case of capture, or control important squares in the game.

How to Move the King in Chess

The king is the most important piece, but is one of the weakest. The king can only move one square in any direction - up, down, to the sides, and diagonally. The king may never move himself into check (where he could be captured). When the king is attacked by another piece this is called "check".

How to Move the Chess King

How to Move the Queen in Chess

The queen is the most powerful piece. She can move in any one straight direction - forward, backward, sideways, or diagonally - as far as possible as long as she does not move through any of her own pieces. And, like with all pieces, if the queen captures an opponent's piece her move is over. Notice how the white queen captures the black queen and then the black king is forced to move.

How to Move the Chess Queen

How to Move the Rook in Chess

Ngome anaweza kwenda mbali jinsi atakavyo, ila kwa kwenda mbele, nyuma, na upandeupande. Ngome ni vipande vyenye nguvu wanapokuwa wanalindana wao kwa wao na wanapokuwa wanafanya kazi pamoja!

How to Move the Chess Rook

How to Move the Bishop in Chess

The bishop may move as far as it wants, but only diagonally. Each bishop starts on one color (light or dark) and must always stay on that color. Bishops work well together because they cover up each other's weaknesses.

How to Move the Chess Bishop

How to Move the Knight in Chess

Farasi hutembea kwa namna tofauti na vipande vingine - kusogea miraba miwili katika mwelekeo mmoja, halafu mraba mmoja zaidi katika nyuzi 90 pembe, sawa na mkao wa "L". Farasi ndivyo vipande vya pekee ambavyo vina uwezo wa kuruka juu ya vipande vingine.

How to Move the Chess Knight

How to Move the Pawn in Chess

Askari ni vipande visivyo vya kawaida kwani wanatembea na kuteka kwa namna tofauti tofauti: wanaenda mbele, ila wanateka kiulalo. Askari wanasogea tu mraba mmoja kwenda mbele kwa wakati mmoja, isipokuwa katika misogeo yao ya kwanza ambapo wanaweza kusogea kwenda mbele miraba miwili. Askari wanaweza kuteka mraba mmoja ulalo mbele yao. Hawawezi kusogea wala kuteka kwa kwenda nyumanyuma. Iwapo kuna kipande kingine mbele ya mateka hawezi kukipita wala kukiteka hicho kipande.

How to Move the Chess Pawn

Step 3. Discover the Special Rules of Chess

There are a few special rules in chess that may not seem logical at first. They were created to make the game more fun and interesting.

How to Promote a Pawn in Chess

Pawns have another special ability and that is that if a pawn reaches the other side of the board it can become any other chess piece (called promotion). A pawn may be promoted to any piece. A common misconception is that pawns may only be exchanged for a piece that has been captured. That is NOT true. A pawn is usually promoted to a queen. Only pawns may be promoted.

How to Promote a Pawn

How to do "en passant" in Chess

The last rule about pawns is called “en passant,” which is French for “in passing”. If a pawn moves out two squares on its first move, and by doing so lands to the side of an opponent's pawn (effectively jumping past the other pawn's ability to capture it), that other pawn has the option of capturing the first pawn as it passes by. This special move must be done immediately after the first pawn has moved past, otherwise the option to capture it is no longer available. Click through the example below to better understand this odd, but important rule.

How to En Passant

How to Castle in Chess

One other special chess rule is called castling. This move allows you to do two important things all in one move: get your king to safety (hopefully), and get your rook out of the corner and into the game. On a player's turn he may move his king two squares over to one side and then move the rook from that side's corner to right next to the king on the opposite side. (See the example below.) However, in order to castle, the following conditions must be met:

  • it must be that king's very first move
  • it must be that rook's very first move
  • haiwezekani kuwepo na vipande kati ya mfalme na ruku kuchukua msogeo
  • mfalme hawezi kuwa kwenye check ama kupitia katika check

Notice that when you castle one direction the king is closer to the side of the board. That is called castling "kingside". Castling to the other side, through where the queen sat, is called castling "queenside". Regardless of which side, the king always moves only two squares when castling.

How to Castle in Chess

Step 4. Find out Who Makes the First Move in Chess

The player with the white pieces always moves first. Therefore, players generally decide who will get to be white by chance or luck such as flipping a coin or having one player guess the color of the hidden pawn in the other player's hand. White then makes a move, followed by black, then white again, then black and so on until the end of the game. Being able to move first is a tiny advantage which gives the white player an opportunity to attack right away.

Step 5. Review the Rules of How to Win a Game of Chess

There are two ways to end a game of chess: by checkmate, or with a draw.

How to Checkmate in Chess

The purpose of the game is to checkmate the opponent's king. This happens when the king is put into check and cannot get out of check. There are only three ways a king can get out of check: move out of the way (though he cannot castle!), block the check with another piece, or capture the piece threatening the king. If a king cannot escape checkmate then the game is over. Customarily the king is not captured or removed from the board, the game is simply declared over.

How to Checkmate in Chess

How to Draw a Chess Game

Mara kwa mara michezo ya chess huwa haiishii na mshindi, ila kwa sare. Kuna sababu 5 kwa nini mchezo wa chess unaweza kuishia na sare:

  • The position reaches a stalemate where it is one player's turn to move, but his king is NOT in check and yet he does not have another legal move
  • Wachezaji wanaweza kukubaliana kwa wepesi kuishia sare na kuacha kucheza
  • Hakuna vipande vya kutosha kwenye ubao kulazimisha checkmate (mfano: mfalme na askofu dhidi ya mfalme)
  • Mchezaji anatangaza sare iwapo nafasi hiyo hiyo inarudiwa mara tatu (ingawa sio lazima iwe mara tatu kwa kufuatana)
  • Misogeo hamsini za kufuatana zimechezwa, hakuna mchezaji aliyesogeza askari wala kuteka kipande hata kimoja

Step 6. Study Basic Chess Strategies

Kuna vitu rahisi vinne ambavyo kila mchezaji wa chess anapaswa kuvifahamu:

Protect your King

Get your king to the corner of the board where he is usually safer. Don't put off castling. You should usually castle as quickly as possible. Remember, it doesn't matter how close you are to checkmating your opponent if your own king is checkmated first!

Don't Give Pieces Away

Don't carelessly lose your pieces! Each piece is valuable and you can't win a game without pieces to checkmate. There is an easy system that most players use to keep track of the relative value of each chess piece. How much are the chess pieces worth?

  • Thamani ya askari ni 1
  • Thamani ya Farasi ni 3
  • Thamani ya Askofu ni 3
  • Thamani ya ruku ni 5
  • Malkia ana thamani ya 9
  • Mfalme ana thamani bila kikomo

At the end of the game these points don't mean anything – it is simply a system you can use to make decisions while playing, helping you know when to capture, exchange, or make other moves.

Study Basic Chess Strategies

Control the Center of the Chessboard

Jitahidi kuthibi katikati ya ubao kwa vipande na askari wako. Iwapo utathibiti kati, utakuwa na nafasi zaidi za kutembeza vipande vyako na utamsababisha mpinzani wako kuwa na wakati mgumu wa kupata miraba mizuri kwa ajili ya vipande vyake. Kwenye mfano wa hapo juu nyeupe anachukua misogeo mizuri za kuthibiti kati wakati nyeusi anacheza misogeo mibaya.

Use All of your Chess Pieces

In the example above white got all of his pieces in the game! Your pieces don't do any good when they are sitting back on the first row. Try and develop all of your pieces so that you have more to use when you attack the king. Using one or two pieces to attack will not work against any decent opponent.

Step 7. Practice by Playing Lots of Games

The most important thing you can do to get better at chess is to play lots of chess! It doesn't matter if you play at home with friends or family, or play online, you have to play the game a lot to improve. These days it's easy to find a game of chess online! Click here for where to play chess.

How to Play Chess Variants

While most people play standard chess rules, some people like to play chess with changes to the rules. These are called "chess variants". Each variant has its own rules.

How to Play Chess960

Chess960 follows all the rules of standard chess, except for the starting position of pieces on the back rank, which are placed randomly in one of 960 possible positions. Castling is done just like in standard chess, with the King and Rook landing on their normal castled squares (g1 and f1, or c1 and d1). 960 plays just like standard chess, but with more variety in the opening.

How to Play with Chess Tournament Rules

Many tournaments follow a set of common, similar rules. These rules do not necessarily apply to play at home or online, but you may want to practice with them anyway.

  • Touch-move - If a player touches one of their own pieces they must move that piece as long as it is a legal move. If a player touches an opponent's piece, they must capture that piece. A player who wishes to touch a piece only to adjust it on the board must first announce the intention, usually by saying “adjust”.
  • Clocks and Timers - Most tournaments use timers to regulate the time spent on each game, not on each move. Each player gets the same amount of time to use for their entire game and can decide how to spend that time. Once a player makes a move they then touch a button or hit a lever to start the opponent's clock. If a player runs out of time and the opponent calls the time, then the player who ran out of time loses the game (unless the opponent does not have enough pieces to checkmate, in which case it is a draw).

Frequently Asked Chess Questions (FAQs)

How do I get better at chess?

Kufahamu kanuni na mikakati msingi ni mwanzo tu - kuna mambo mengi ya kujifunza katika chess ambayo huwezi kujifunza maisha yote! Ili kuendelea unahitaji mambo matatu:

  1. Play lots of chess — Just keep playing! Play as much as possible. You should learn from each game – those you win and those you lose.
  2. Study with chess lessons — If you really want to improve quickly then you should do some online chess lessons. You can find online chess lessons here.
  3. Have fun — Don't get discouraged if you don't win all of your games right away. Everyone loses – even world champions. As long as you continue to have fun and learn from the games you lose then you can enjoy chess forever!

What is the best first move in chess?

While there is no one agreed-upon best move in chess, it's important to try to control the center right away. This usually results in most players playing one of their central pawns (in front of king or queen) forward two squares with either 1. d4 or 1. e4. Some other players prefer 1. c4 or 1. Nf3. Most other moves are not as good. Bobby Fischer believed that moving the king-pawn 1. e4 was best.

Which color starts in chess?

The player with the white pieces always moves first.

Can a pawn move backwards?

Pawns cannot move backwards. However, when a pawn gets to the other side of the board you must promote it to another piece (such as a queen). Then it moves just like that piece, and can move backwards.

Can you move more than one piece at a time in chess?

You can only move one chess piece at a time when it is your turn to move - with one exception! When you castle, you move both the king and the rook in one move.

Which is the most important chess piece?

The king is the most important chess piece. If you lose the king, you lose the game. But the queen is the most powerful chess piece.

When was chess invented?

Machimbuko ya chess haswa hayako wazi, ingawa wengi wanaamini kwamba iliinukia kutoka kwenye michezo yenye tabia kama za chess iliyochezwa India karibu miaka elfu mbili iliyopita. Mchezo wa chess tunaoufahamu leo umekuwepo tangu karne ya 15 ulipoanza kuwa maarufu Ulaya.

What is the goal of chess?

Chess ni mchezo unaochezwa baina ya wapinzani wawili kwenye pande mbili mkabala na ubao wenye miraba 64 yenye rangi zenye kupishanapishana. Kila mchezaji ana vipande 16: mfalme 1, malkia 1, ngome 2, maaskofu 2, farasi 2, na askari 8. Lengo la mchezo ni kumkaba mfalme (checkmate) wa ng'ambo ya pili. Ukabaji (checkmate) unatokea pale ambapo mfalme anakuwa katika mazingira ya kutekwa (chini ya uangalizi) na hawezi kukimbia kutekwa.

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