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Train Your Brain! Target Consciousness, Part 2

  • IM Silman
  • | Nov 12, 2013
  • | 12971 views
  • | 17 comments

My last two articles (Train Your Brain! Target Consciousness Part 1, and How to Train Your Brain) were about weak squares and weak pawns, which I view as targets that need to be devoured or used. Creating a permanent seek-and-destroy mentality when it comes to these and other targets is something I call Target Consciousness.

Here I’m going to milk weak squares and weak pawns one last time so that, after you combine all three articles, you should have an excellent grasp of what a weak pawn and weak square is. Moreover, I’m hoping that this will enable you to make your first steps into the world of Target Consciousness. Don’t let these first steps be your last. Make Target Consciousness a permanent, and very important, part of your chess mentality.

We’ll start with one of the greatest “weak square” games in history. The other instructive highlight from this game is the power of space. The notes will be minimum, but I do want you to pay attention to the weak squares and how White takes advantage of them, so expect me to point out those things when they occur!

Prepare yourself for a real treat!

Carl Schlechter-Walter John
Barmen Masters, 1905

1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 f5 4.Nf3 c6 5.Bf4 Bd6 6.e3!

TARGET: e5-square

Black tends to have some problems with the e5-square whenever he plays the Stonewall Dutch, but in this position that square can become a chronic illness. White would love it if Black doubles his pawns after 6...Bxf4 7.exf4 since then e5 will be White’s permanent possession.

6...Nf6 7.Bd3 Qc7

Not a very good move. Black is hoping to force Bxd6, but White won’t snap at the bait!

8.g3!

TARGET: e5-square

8...0-0 9.0-0 Ne4

The knight looks good here, but e4 isn’t a hole (compared to e5, which IS a hole!) since White can eventually kick the knight out by f2-f3.

10.Qb3 Kh8

What would have happened if Black had just developed with 10...Nd7? Here's your first puzzle:

 

11.Rac1 Bxf4

Facing tactics down the c-file, Black caves and chops on f4.

12.exf4

TARGET: e5-square

12...Qf7 13.Ne5 Qe7 14.Bxe4! fxe4 15.f3 exf3 16.Rce1


POTENTIAL TARGET: backward pawn on e6

 

16...Qc7 17.Qa3

TARGET: dark squares down the a3-f8 diagonal

The White queen keeps an eye on the weak dark squares and makes it hard for Black to develop normally.

17...Kg8 18.Rxf3 Na6 19.b3

The white queen has done its duty and should gradually be brought back to the kingside.

19...Qd8 20.c5

White already has sizable advantage in central space, but now he decides to grab queenside space too!

20...Nc7 21.Qb2 Bd7 22.Qc2 Qe7 23.Ref1 Rae8 24.g4!

Not only gaining kingside space, but also preparing Rh3, which will force the creation of new target squares.

24...Bc8 25.Rh3

This might look like an attacking move, but it’s actually designed to force Black into making some serious positional concessions.

25...g6

TARGETS: holes on f6 and h6

Think about this! With 25.Rh3 it seemed that White was launching a kingside attack. But instead he was forcing Black to create new holes which will be dominated and occupied later in the game. This is a great example of one side forcing the creation of new targets.

26.b4!

White now owns the whole board!

26...Qf6 27.Rhf3 Re7 28.a4

More queenside space for White.

28...a6 29.Nd1!

TARGETS: f6 and h6

The knight will move to e3 (which will keep black’s queen off of f5 after g4-g5) and, after g4-g5, it will continue onto g4 and then h6 or f6. 

29...Rg7 30.Ne3

Heading for the targets on f6 and h6.

30...Qe7 31.g5

TARGETS: f6 and h6

White gains even more kingside space while simultaneously laying claim to both f6 and h6.

31...Bd7 32.N3g4

This knight joins the g5-pawn in its desire for h6 and f6.

32...Be8 33.Nh6+

Not only gobbling up more squares from Black’s pieces, but also depriving Black’s queen and rooks of access to the f5-square.

33...Kh8 34.Qe2

TARGET: e5-square

34...Qd8 35.Neg4 Bd7 36.Qe5 Ne8 37.Rh3 Qc7 38.Nf6!

TARGETS: e5, f6, h6, e6

38...Qxe5

What would have happened if Black tried 38...Qd8? I guess this calls for another puzzle!

39.fxe5 Re7 40.Rhf3

40...Nxf6 41.Rxf6 Rxf6 42.exf6 Re8 43.Nf7+ Kg8 44.Ne5

White swung the knight to e5 so that a pawn sacrifice via ...e6-e5 wouldn’t allow the bishop some freedom. In other words, White wants to make sure all of Black’s pieces remain in a cage.

44...Rd8 45.Kg2 Kf8 46.h4

Black is completely helpless, so before breaking into the enemy position, White first places all his pieces on their optimum squares.

46...Be8

Black brings his bishop to the kingside to defend against a White breakthrough by h4-h5. For this reason Schlechter makes use of the preparations he had made in the middlegame for a decisive breakthrough on the queenside.

47.Kf3 Bf7 48.Kf4

POTENTIAL TARGETS: e5 and d6

In some lines the White king can dance into the heart of Black’s position by Kf4-e5-d6.

48...Ke8 49.Rb1 Kf8 50.b5

The Breakthrough!

Black resigned here (his pain is finally over). After 50...axb5 51.axb5 Ra8 (51...cxb5 52.Rxb5) 52.bxc6 bxc6 we’ll finish off with a puzzle: 

Here's the whole game (without notes) for those that wish to see every move from start to finish:


The Schlechter game you just looked it is one of my all-time favorites, and I have to admit to having gone over it dozens of times as the years have rolled by. I fell in love with it when I was 12, and I’m still in love with it now – I never tire of it!

Carl Schlechter | Picture Wikipedia


Here’s another game that’s all about squares:

Silman - Craig Mar
San Jose, 1983

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 c5 3.d5 e6 4.Nc3 exd5 5.cxd5 d6 6.Nf3 g6 7.Bg5 Bg7 8.e3 h6 9.Bh4 0-0 10.Nd2

TARGETS: the c4-square and the d6 pawn

White’s 10.Nd2 prevents 10...g5 11.Bg3 Nh5 (since the queen now covers h5), while eyeing the c4-square which would be an ideal square for the knight since it would place pressure on d6.

10...Nbd7 11.Be2 a6 12.a4 Re8 13.0-0 Rb8 14.h3

This move keeps Black’s pieces out of g4 and also allows White's dark-squared bishop to hide on h2 in some lines. It’s surprisingly difficult for Black to create active play from this position.

14...g5 15.Bg3 Ne5 16.Qc2 Qe7 17.Rfe1 Bd7 18.a5 g4 19.hxg4 Nfxg4 20.Na4

 TARGETS: the b6 and f5 squares

Note that if Black chops on a4 with 20...Bxa4 (White would reply with 21.Rxa4) the f5-square would lose its main defender. 

20...Qg5

Hoping to bail out of his predicament with tactics like ...Nxe3.

21.Nf1

Defending e3 and g3 and ending any tactical nonsense before it occurs.

21...Qg6 22.Qxg6! fxg6 23.Nb6

TARGETS: the b6 and c4 squares

 

23...Bf5 24.f3 Nf6 25.e4 Bc8 26.Bxe5!

TARGET: the c4-square

26…dxe5

Black loses material after 26...Rxe5 27.Nc4. Now (after 26...dxe5) Black’s dark-squared bishop finds itself in a sad state since the a1-h8 diagonal is closed.

27.Ne3

TARGET: the c4-square AT LAST!

27...Nd7 28.Nec4 Nxb6 29.Nxb6

TARGETS: b6 and c4

This knight can now leap effortlessly between b6 and c4. It’s a very happy horse.

29...Bf8 30.Rec1

The c5-pawn is obviously under fire but, ultimately, White wants the whole c-file since the b6-knight would prevent a Black rook from moving to c8 and challenging for the file. Black is hopelessly lost.

30...Kf7 31.Bd1!

TARGETS: the a4-e8 diagonal

Making sure every piece reaches its optimal square. The bishop wasn’t doing anything on e2, but it will be a major player on a4!

31...h5 32.Ba4 Rd8 33.Kf2!

As usual, I always try to deny my opponent counterplay. This move prevents ...Bf8-h6-e3+ when that formerly bad piece would find a nice home on d4.

33...h4

And we’ll end this game with a puzzle:

Our next example shows the mentality you need when faced with the loss of a key square. By being aware of weak squares, you’ll be better able to defend yourself against that kind of positional strategy.

I realize that many players will think this example is far too advanced for them, but it’s not! You don’t need to understand all of it. But by looking it over and seeing how White wants to dominate c5, and how Black will use his own plusses to not allow White his dream, you’ll start to look at chess in a very different light. This “initial look” is often the first step towards real chess understanding. 

De Beaurevoir – Francois Andre Philidor
London, 1788

In a way, the game hangs in the balance here. Black must understand what White wants to do (White intends to dominate the c5-square/target), and he must take action against it by using his own plusses: two bishops and a lead in development.

Many amateurs would feel safe enough, and would calmly (and happily) play a move like 17...Nf5, but after 18.b4 Be6 (still living in a fool’s dream and happily developing while Rome burns) 19.Nf3 Rfc8 20.Ba7 Rb7 21.Bc5 Bd8 22.Bf2 (threatening Nc5) 22...Ng7 (defending the e6-bishop) 23.Nc5 Rf7 and now a move like 24.Nd4 pretty much illustrates White’s superiority since he has “won” both the c5-square and the d4-square, plus he is also eyeing the pawn weaknesses/targets on a6 and c6.


17...Nf5 was a disaster for Black. Can’t he do better than that? 

As I said earlier, Black needs to make full use of his two bishops and lead in development by playing for raw activity and causing a fight before White gets the rest of his pieces into the game. Moves that fit the bill are: 17...g5 (cracking f4), 17...a5 (preventing b2-b4 and, in many lines, preparing to play ...Ba6+, and turning a pure target [when it’s on a6] into a hard working unit with a purpose [though it’s still a target!]), and 17...c5 (Saying, “No! You can’t win that square!”).

All these moves show that Black has a solid grasp of basic positional concepts, while the variation with 17...Nf5 and 18...Be6 showed that Black needs to put away the tactical puzzles for a while and pick up some degree of strategic understanding.

Here are samples (not a true analysis – just samples) of all the recommended moves:

All three of these moves (17...g5, 17...a5, and 17...c5) are demonstrations of energy. They give you a look at a strong player fighting to make his own advantages win out over his opponent’s stuff (the inferior 17...Nf5 showed us what happens if you just move pieces about with little rhyme or reason and allow the opponent to make complete use of his plusses. In that case it was the c5-square and ultimately the d4-square too.). 

André Philidor | Image Wikipedia

We’ll finish with a few puzzles. Please don’t forget to click on the little “?” at the bottom left of the puzzle for instructive prose and variations!

Find the target square and you’ll find the solution!

 

White has just captured a pawn on c4 and Black has to decide which pawn to use to recapture. What would you choose? This game shows that Greco, who mowed down so many opponents in a handful of brutal moves, was also adept at positional play, and Target Consciousness, way back in the early 1600s!

 

 

 


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Comments


  • 10 months ago

    Chesspuzzles

    the first puzzle is completely incorrect according to my engine. please revise it. After the queen check on the king, the king can move to h8 with an advantage for black. However it's the bishop that should take on 

  • 10 months ago

    buri

    Hmm interesting. I was able to solve all of the puzzles easily, but during my games things don't seem as easy as all this. 

  • 10 months ago

    mottsauce

    Great followup to your last article!

  • 10 months ago

    blackfun

    Thank you for your article.  I'll be watching for anymore by IM Silman.

  • 10 months ago

    bigchief1987

    in the Schlechter game's final puzzle, instead of 55...Ke3, I think h5 leads to faster and more beautiful checkmate:

     


    on a second thought, if black goes Bf7 anyway, it would be the exact same checkmate, but at least we give black the option of getting mated beautifully and in several ways, so that's the merciful way of finishing off the opponent, and probably the move Jesus would have chosen.

  • 10 months ago

    GM_ChessAddict

    i love this article very intertning..

  • 10 months ago

    nedved777

    IM Silman, thanks for the clear response!  I understnad now that with the White queen on e4, that pawn will be hard to attack.

     

    @mpckoo 42. Rh8+ Kxf7  43. Rxf8 Kxf8, and Black has two minor pieces for the queen.  White is still winning, but there's no clear checkmate in sight.  In the main line, not only does White have another minor piece, but mate is coming.

  • 10 months ago

    mpckoo

    Puzzle two: Why not 44. Nf7+ Kg8 45. Rh8#

  • 10 months ago

    fateofnate

    To: nedved777

    If that were to happen (a trade of knights on e5), White can still pounce into the c5 square- his target square. Plus a pawn on e5 may give White control of another crucial square- d6. See if this answer (I may be wrong) satisfies you. 

  • 10 months ago

    IM Silman

    @ nedved777 who thought 14...Nxe5 was good. His question is an excellent one and the answer highlights our theme. 

    After 15.dxe5 the pawn isn't that weak (it actually adds to White's space advantage) but the important part is looking at the squares (which is our theme). Not only does White have access to c5, but he now also has access to d6 (perhaps Nd6 in some situations)! One possible line: 15...Qc7 16.Nc5 Rab8 (not great but it does threaten e5) 17.Qe4 and White is clearly better.

    Thanks for the question!

  • 10 months ago

    nedved777

    In the second-to-last puzzle (Chekover vs Rudakovsky), why doesn't Black recapture the knight with 14. ...Nxe5?  Won't White have to recapture 15. dxe5, destabilizing his own pawn structure and making his pawn a target on e5?  Sorry if the answer is obvious, pretty new to chess :/

  • 10 months ago

    Strobs88

    Hillary Clinton and Chris Christie can go jump off a bridge.  I'm voting Silman 2016

  • 10 months ago

    William_A

    brilliant article !!!

  • 10 months ago

    rj1180

    Got your book, thank you!! already won me a few endgames.

  • 10 months ago

    LT-Haggy

    [COMMENT DELETED]
  • 10 months ago

    Kijiri

    Good article, as always I enjoyed it very much! You should do more in this series since they are very instructive! 

  • 10 months ago

    TheMagicianPaul

    This is some amazing, amazing, AMAZING reading. Mr Silman, you keep proving everyone that you're the best chess writer over and over again. These examples are great and I could simply feel that I was learning a lot. Such articles change my sight on the game. This is truly magical, you're indeed the G.O.A.T. Keep up the amazing work :)

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