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Jul 23, 1913: Alexander Kuznetsov, Russian composer, was born in Moskva, USSR.
Jul 23, 1942: Arthur Klinge,German composer, died in Eppendorf, Germany.
Jul 23, 1972: George Alan Thomas died in London, England.
Jul 23, 1976: Judit Polgar was born in Budapest, Hungary.
Jul 23, 1987: Alexander Krapivin was born, Russia.
Jul 23, 2006: Rudolf Teschner died in Berlin, Germany.
Rudolf Teschner (16 February 1922, Potsdam - 23 July 2006, Berlin-Steglitz) was a German chess master and writer.
Teschner was seven times Champion of Berlin. In 1948, he won an East-Zones Championship in Bad Doberan, and later in 1951 took the German Championship (played in Düsseldorf).
Teschner was leading member of the German Chess Olympic team in 1952 and 1956. In 1957 he obtained the title of International Master from FIDE.
He was 2-3 in the Zonal tournament in Berg en Dal 1960 and twice 1-4 in Christmas tournaments in Reggio Emilia (1963/1964 and 1964/1965). Teschner played in the 1962 Interzonal tournament at Stockholm.
FIDE awarded him the complimentary Grandmaster title in 1992, the first in history. His best historical ELO was 2633 in May 1968, when he played very successful in the Bamberg tournament and won the prize for the most beautiful chess game.
Teschner worked between 1950 and 1988 as publisher of Deutsche Schachzeitung (German Chess News, the World's oldest surviving chess magazine), and wrote many books and articles about chess.
Judit Polgár (born July 23, 1976) is a Hungarian chess grandmaster. She is by far the strongest female chess player in history. In 1991, she achieved the title of Grandmaster (GM) at the age of 15 years and 4 months. She was, at that time, the youngest person to do so. Polgár is ranked number 36 in the world on the January 2009 FIDE rating list with an Elo rating of 2693, the only woman on FIDE's Top 100 Players list, and has been ranked as high as number eight.
Judit Polgár is Jewish, and from Budapest. Members of her family perished in the Holocaust.
She and her two older sisters, Grandmaster Susan and International Master Zsófia, were part of an educational experiment carried out by their father László Polgár, in an attempt to prove that children could make exceptional achievements if trained in a specialist subject from a very early age. "Geniuses are made, not born," was László's thesis. He and his wife Klara educated their three daughters at home, with chess as the specialist subject. However, chess was not taught to the exclusion of everything else. Each of them has several diplomas and speaks four to eight languages. Their father also taught his three daughters the international language Esperanto.
The rest of Judit's family eventually emigrated (Zsófia and her parents to Israel and later to Canada, Susan to New York), but she remained in Hungary and married Gusztáv Font, a veterinary surgeon from Budapest, whom she met through his caring for her dog.
Polgár has always preferred men's events, making it clear from the beginning that she wanted to become the true World Champion of Chess.
Trained in her early years by her sister Susan (who ultimately became Women's World Champion herself) Polgár was a prodigy from an early age. She first defeated an International Master (Dolfi Drimer) at age 10, and a Grandmaster (Vladimir Kovacevic) at age 11.
Judit Polgar qualified as a Grandmaster in December 1991, aged 15 years 4 months, at the time the youngest ever. In 1993 she confirmed her status as one of the world's leading players, narrowly failing to qualify for the Candidates Tournaments at the rival FIDE and PCA Interzonal tournaments.
In 1994 she suffered a controversial defeat at the hands of then-world champion Garry Kasparov, the highest-rated chessplayer of all time. Kasparov changed his mind after making a losing move and then made another move instead. According to chess rules, once a player has released a piece s/he cannot make a different move, so Kasparov should have been made to play his original move. However, Polgár did not challenge this because she says there were no witnesses and an arbiter was not around. She was also unaware at the time that the re-move was caught on tape by a television crew. The tournament director was criticised for not forfeiting Kasparov when the videotape evidence was made available to him. However, she won a rapid chess game against Kasparov in 2002 and her score stands at +1 -11 =3 with Kasparov.
On the January 1996 FIDE ratings list, Polgár's 2675 rating made her the number 10 ranked player in the world, the first woman ever to enter the world's Top Ten.
In 2003, Polgár scored one of her best results: an undefeated clear second place in the Category 19 Corus chess tournament in Wijk aan Zee, Netherlands, just a half-point behind Indian star Viswanathan Anand, and a full point ahead of world champion Vladimir Kramnik.
In 2004, Polgár took some time off from chess to give birth to her son, Olivér. She was consequently considered inactive and not listed on the January 2005 FIDE rating list. Her sister Susan reactivated her playing status during this period, and temporarily became ranked the world's number one woman player again.
Polgár returned to chess at the prestigious Corus chess tournament on January 15, 2005, scoring 7/13. She was therefore relisted in the April 2005 FIDE rating list, gaining a few rating points for her better-than-par performance at Corus. In May she also had a better-than-par performance at a strong tournament in Sofia, Bulgaria, finishing third. This brought her to her highest ever rating, 2735, in the July 2005 FIDE list and enabled her to retain her spot as the eighth ranked player in the world.
In September 2005, Polgár became the first woman to play for a World Championship, at the FIDE World Chess Championship 2005. However, she had a rare disappointing performance, coming last out of the eight competitors. Nigel Short criticised her poor opening repertoire, and some speculated that taking a year off to have a baby may have left her rusty, despite her strong performances in two tournaments earlier in the year.
She did not play at the 2006 Linares tournament because she was pregnant again. On July 6, 2006, she gave birth to a girl, Hanna.
In October 2006, Polgár scored another excellent result: tied for first place in the Essent Chess Tournament, Hoogeveen, Holland. She scored 4.5 out of 6 in a double round robin tournament that included two wins against the world's top-rated player, Veselin Topalov.
In May-June 2007 she played in the Candidates Tournament for the FIDE World Chess Championship 2007. She was eliminated in the first round, losing 3.5-2.5 to Evgeny Bareev. In november the same year she took part in an historic event, the "Liga de Campeones" tournament, played in Vitoria Gasteiz, Spain. That tournament was conceived to put together all the living active world male chess champions, plus Judit. She managed to score a very valuable fifty percent, finishing third.
In January 2008 she competed in the Corus Wijk aan Zee tournament, scoring a respectable 6.0/13.
In November 2008, Polgár played the number 2 board for the Hungarian open ("men's") team in the 38th Chess Olympiad in Dresden, finishing 3.5/8.
1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.Bg5 dxe4 5.Nxe4 Be7 6.Bxf6 Bxf6 7.Nf3 O-O 8.Qd2 Nd7 9.O-O-O Be7 10.Bd3 b6 11.Neg5 h6 12.Bh7+ Kh8 13.Be4 hxg5 14.g4 Rb8 15.h4 g6 16.hxg5+ Kg7 17.Qf4 Bb7 18.Rh7+ Kxh7 19.Qh2+ Kg8 20.Rh1 Bxg5+ 21.Nxg5 Qxg5+ 22.f4 Qxf4+ 23.Qxf4 Bxe4 24.Qxe4 1-0
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3. Bb5 Nf6 4.O-O Nxe4 5.d4 Nd6 6.Bxc6 dxc6 7.dxe5 Nf5 8.Qxd8+ Kxd8 9.Nc3 h6 10.Rd1+ Ke8 11.h3 Be7 12.Ne2 Nh4 13.Nxh4 Bxh4 14.Be3 Bf5 15.Nd4 Bh7 16.g4 Be7 17.Kg2 h5 18.Nf5 Bf8 19.Kf3 Bg6 20.Rd2 hxg4+ 21.hxg4 Rh3+ 22.Kg2 Rh7 23.Kg3 f6 24.Bf4 Bxf5 25.gxf5 fxe5 26.Re1 Bd6 27.Bxe5 Kd7 28. c4 c5 29.Bxd6 cxd6 30.Re6 Rah8 31.Rexd6+ Kc8 32.R2d5 Rh3+ 33.Kg2 Rh2+ 34.Kf3 R2h3+ 35.Ke4 b6 36.Rc6+ Kb8 37.Rd7 Rh2 38.Ke3 Rf8 39.Rcc7 Rxf5 40.Rb7+ Kc8 41.Rdc7+ Kd8 42.Rxg7 Kc8 1-0
Sir George Alan Thomas, Bart. (born Therapia, Turkey; 14 June 1881 – 23 July 1972) was a British chess, badminton and tennis player. He was twice British Chess Champion and a seven-time All-England Badminton champion. He also played in the semi-finals of the men's tennis doubles at Wimbledon in 1911.
Thomas never married, so the hereditary Thomas baronetcy ended on his death. He was admired for his fine sportsmanship.
Living most of his life in London and Godalming, Thomas was British Chess Champion in 1923 and 1934. He shared first prize at the 1934/5 Hastings International Chess Congress in very good company, tying with the next world chess champion Max Euwe and leading Soviet player Salo Flohr, ahead of past and future world champions José Raúl Capablanca and Mikhail Botvinnik, whom he defeated in their individual games.
Thomas also defeated Euwe in tournament play and held Alekhine to six draws. His 'lifetime' scores against the world's elite were however less flattering: he had minuses against Emanuel Lasker (−1, not counting a win in a Lasker simultaneous exhibition in 1896), Capablanca (+1−5=3), Alekhine (−7=6), Efim Bogoljubov (−5=3), Euwe (+1−9=2), Flohr (+2−9=4) and Savielly Tartakower (+3−9=10). He also fared badly against Edgard Colle (+1–9=8). More impressively, he did manage even scores with Botvinnik (+1−1), Richard Réti (+3−3=1) and Siegbert Tarrasch (+1−1=3). Against Géza Maróczy, the balance was in Thomas' favour (+3−1=5).
Domestically, he held a plus score against his great English rival Frederick Yates (+13 –11 =13), but was less successful against Women's World Chess Champion Vera Menchik (+7−8=7),
In 1950 he was awarded the International Master title by FIDE and in 1952, became an International Arbiter. At age 69, he gave up competitive chess.