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Today in Chess History: Oct 11

  • #1

    Oct 11, 1878: Eugene Colman was born in Merton, England.

    Oct 11, 1881: Robert Scrivener was born in Mobile, Alabama, USA.

    Oct 11, 1882: Raymond Gevers, Belgian composer, was born in Anvers, Belgium.

    Oct 11, 1905: Remo Calapso was born in Palermo, Italy.

    Oct 11, 1909: Georgy Lisitsin was born in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    Oct 11, 1914: Reuben Fine was born in New York, USA.

    Oct 11, 1935: Charles Fox, British composer, died in Falmouth, England.

    Oct 11, 1959: Gregory Kaidanov was born in Berdychiv, Ukraina.

    Oct 11, 1978: Nicolai Kopayev died, Russia.

    Oct 11, 1983: Ruslan Ponomariov was born in Horlivka, Ukraina.

  • #2

    Eugene Ernest Colman (11 October 1878, Merton, England – 20 July 1964) was an English chess master.

    He tied for 9-10th in the Hamburg 1910 chess tournament (the 17th DSB Congress, Hauptturnier A, Gersz Rotlewi won), tied for 6-7th at Oxford 1910, took 10th at London 1910, shared 3rd at Tunbridge Wells 1911, tied for 10-11th at London 1919, and took 7th at Margate 1923.

    His name is attached to the Colman Variation of the Two Knights Defense (1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Nf6 4.Ng5 d5 5.exd5 Na5 6.Bb5+ c6 7.dxc6 bxc6 8.Qf3 Rb8) but the most remarkable thing about it were the circumstances under which it was first analysed. During WWII Colman was interned in Changi Civilian Internees Camp in Singapore (1942–1945) and his opening analysis helped take his (and his fellow prisoners’) mind off the horrors of the prison (about 850 POWs died in Changi Prison during the Japanese occupation).


  • #3

    Georgy Lisitsin (Russian: Георгий Лисицын; 11 October 1909 - 20 March 1972) was a Russian chess master.

    He won thrice Leningrad City Chess Championship in 1933/34 (joint), 1939 and 1947 (joint). He participated many times in USSR Chess Championship. His best result was in 1933 when he shared 3rd (Mikhail Botvinnik won). He also played in international tournaments, finishing 15th at Moscow 1935 (Botvinnik and Salo Flohr won), and took 2nd at Helsinki 1946 (Viacheslav Ragozin won).

    Lisitsin was an author of several chess books.

    He was awarded the International Master title in 1950.


  • #4

    Reuben Fine (October 11, 1914 – March 26, 1993) was one of the strongest chess players in the world from the mid 1930s through the 1940s, an International Grandmaster, psychologist and author of books on both chess and psychology. Fine won five medals (four gold) in three chess Olympiads. Fine won the U.S. Open Chess Championship all seven times he entered (1932, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1939, 1940, 1941). He was the author of several chess books that are still popular today, including important books on the chess endgame, opening, and middlegame. He earned a bachelor's degree from the City College of New York in 1932. After World War II, he earned his doctorate in psychology, and wrote many successful books in that field as well. Although he was regarded as a serious contender for the World Chess Championship, he declined his invitation to participate in the six-player 1948 match-tournament to determine the World Champion after the death of reigning champion Alexander Alekhine.

    Reuben Fine ReubenFine.jpg

    Fine was born in New York City to a poor Russian-Jewish family. He learned to play chess at age eight, and began tournament-level chess at the famous Marshall Chess Club in New York City, stomping grounds for many famous grandmasters such as Bobby Fischer, later on. At this stage of his career, Fine played a great deal of blitz chess, and he eventually became one of the best blitz players in the world. Even in the early 1930s, he could nearly hold his own in blitz chess against the then world chess champion Alexander Alekhine, although Fine admitted that the few times he played Alekhine's predecessor José Raúl Capablanca, the latter beat him "mercilessly".

    Fine's first significant master-level event was the 1930 New York Young Masters tournament, which was won by Arthur Dake. He narrowly lost a 1931 stakes match to fellow New Yorker Arnold Denker. Fine placed second at the 1931 New York State Championship with 8/11, behind Fred Reinfeld. Fine won the 15th Marshall Chess Club Championship of 1931 with 10.5/13, half a point ahead of Reinfeld. He defeated Herman Steiner by 5.5-4.5 at New York 1932; this was the first of three matches the two players would contest.

    At seventeen, Fine won his first of seven U.S. Open Chess Championships at Minneapolis 1932 with 9.5/11, half a point ahead of Samuel Reshevsky; this tournament was known as the Western Open at the time. Fine played in his first top-class international tournament at Pasadena 1932, where he shared 7-10th with 5/11; the winner was world chess champion Alexander Alekhine. Fine repeated as champion in the 16th Marshall Club Championship, held from Oct.-Dec. 1932, with 11.5/13, 2.5 points ahead of the runner-up. After graduating from City College of New York in 1932, at age 18, where he was a brilliant student, and where he captained CCNY to the 1931 National Collegiate team title, Fine decided to try the life of a chess professional for a few years.

    Fine won the U.S. Team Selection tournament, New York 1933, with 8/10. This earned him the first of three national team berths for the chess Olympiads. Fine won five medals (including three team golds) representing the United States; his detailed record follows (from olimpbase.org). His totals are (+20 =19 -6), for 65.6 per cent.

    • Folkestone 1933: board three, 9/13 (+6 =6 -1), team gold, board silver;
    • Warsaw 1935: board one, 9/17 (+5 =8 -4), team gold;
    • Stockholm 1937: board two, 11.5/15 (+9 =5 -1), team gold, board gold.

    Fine repeated as champion at the U.S./Western Open, Detroit 1933, with 12/13, half a point ahead of Reshevsky. Fine won the 17th Marshall Club Championship, 1933-34, with 9.5/11. He defeated Al Horowitz in a match at New York 1934 by 6-3. Fine shared 1st-2nd places at the U.S./Western Open, Chicago 1934, on 7.5/9, with Reshevsky. He then shared 1st-3rd places at Mexico City 1934, on 11/12, with Herman Steiner and Arthur Dake. At Syracuse 1934, Fine shared 3rd-4th places, on 10/14, as Reshevsky won. Fine won his fourth straight U.S./Western Open at Milwaukee 1935, scoring 6.5/9 in the preliminary round, and then 8/10 in the finals. Having had outstanding successes in North America, Fine tried his first European individual international tournament at Lodz 1935, where he shared 2nd-3rd places with 6/9 behind Savielly Tartakower. Fine won the Hastings 1935-36 with 7.5/9, a point ahead of Salo Flohr.

    Although Fine was active and very successful in U.S. open tournaments, he was never able to finish first in the U.S. Championship, usually placing behind his great American rival, Samuel Reshevsky. When in 1936 Frank Marshall voluntarily gave up the American Championship title he had held since 1909, the result was the first modern U.S. Championship tournament. Fine scored 10.5/15 in the U.S. Championship, New York 1936, a tied 3rd-4th place, as Reshevsky won. In the U.S. Championship, New York 1938, Fine placed 2nd with 12.5/16, with Reshevsky repeating as champion. In the U.S. Championship, New York 1940, Fine again scored 12.5/16 for 2nd, as Reshevsky won for the third straight time. Then in the 1944 U.S. Championship at New York, Fine scored 14.5/17 for 2nd, though losing to Denker, as the latter won. Fine tallied 50/64 in his four U.S. title attempts, for 78.1 per cent, but was never champion.

    However, Fine's international tournament record in the 1930s was superior to Reshevsky's. By the end of 1937, Fine had won a string of strong European international tournaments, and was one of the most successful players in the world. Fine won at Oslo 1936 with 6.5/7, half a point ahead of Flohr. Fine captured Zandvoort 1936 with 8.5/11, ahead of World Champion Max Euwe, Savielly Tartakower, and Paul Keres. Fine shared 3rd-5th places at the elite Nottingham 1936 event with 9.5/14, half a point behind winners José Raúl Capablanca and Mikhail Botvinnik. Fine shared 1st-2nd places at Amsterdam 1936 on 5/7 with Euwe, half a point ahead of Alekhine. Fine placed 2nd at Hastings 1936-37 with 7.5/9, as Alekhine won. The year 1937 would be Fine's most successful. He won at Leningrad 1937 with 4/5, ahead of Grigory Levenfish, who would come joint first in that year's Soviet Championship. Fine won at Moscow 1937 with 5/7. Those two victories make Fine one of a very few foreigners to win on Russian soil. Fine shared 1st-2nd places at Margate 1937 with Paul Keres on 7.5/9, 1.5 points ahead of Alekhine. Fine shared 1st-3rd places at Ostend 1937 with Paul Keres and Henry Grob on 6/9. At Stockholm 1937, Fine won with 8/9, 1.5 points ahead of Gideon Stahlberg. Fine then defeated Stahlberg by 5-3 in a match held at Goteborg 1937. Fine placed 2nd at the elite Semmering/Baden 1937 tournament with 8/14, behind Paul Keres. At Kemeri 1937, Fine had a rare relatively weak result, with just 9/17 for 8th place, as the title was shared by Reshevsky, Flohr, and Vladimirs Petrovs. Fine shared 4-5th places at Hastings 1937-38 with 6/9 as Reshevsky won.

    In 1938, Fine tied for first place with Paul Keres in the prestigious AVRO tournament in the Netherlands, on 8.5/14, with Keres placed first on tiebreak. This was one of the most famous tournaments of the 20th century, and some believe to this day that it is the strongest tournament ever staged. It was organized with the hope that the winner of AVRO, a double round-robin tournament, would be the next challenger to world champion Alexander Alekhine. Fine finished ahead of future champion Mikhail Botvinnik, current champion Alekhine, former world champions Max Euwe and Capablanca, and Grandmasters Samuel Reshevsky and Salo Flohr. Fine won both of his games against Alekhine.

    As World War II interrupted any prospects for a world championship match, Fine turned to chess writing. In 1941 he wrote Basic Chess Endings, a compendium of endgame analysis which, more than 60 years later, is still considered one of the best works on this subject. His The Ideas Behind the Chess Openings, though badly dated, is still useful for grasping the underlying ideas of many standard chess openings. During World War II, Fine worked for the U.S. Navy, performing the task of calculating the probability of German U-boats surfacing at certain points in the water. Fine also worked as a translator.

    Fine was unable to compete in Europe during the war, since it was cut off by the German naval blockade. However, Fine did play a few serious American events during World War II, and continued his successes, but there was little prize money even for winning. He won the U.S. Open at New York 1939 with 10.5/11, half a point ahead of Reshevsky. In the 23rd Marshall Club Championship of 1939, Fine won with 14/16. He won the 1940 U.S. Open at Dallas with a perfect 8/8 in the finals, three points ahead of Herman Steiner. Fine won the New York State Championship, Hamilton 1941, with 8/10, a point ahead of Reshevsky, Denker, and Isaac Kashdan. Fine won the 1941 Marshall Club Championship with 14/15, ahead of Frank Marshall. Fine won the 1941 U.S. Open at St. Louis, with 4/5 in the preliminaries, and 8/9 in the finals.

    Fine won the 1942 Washington D.C. Chess Divan title with a perfect 7/7. He defeated Herman Steiner in match play for the second time by 3.5-0.5 at Washington 1944. Fine won the U.S. Speed Championships of both 1944 (10/11) and 1945 (10/11). In the Pan-American Championship, Hollywood 1945, Fine placed 2nd with 9/12 behind Reshevsky. He played in the 1945 USA vs USSR Radio team match, scoring 0.5/2 on board three against Isaac Boleslavsky. Then Fine travelled to Europe one last time to compete, in the 1946 Moscow team match against the USSR, scoring 0.5/2 on board three against Paul Keres.

    As the war ended in late 1945, Fine was working on his doctorate in psychology. Once he completed this, he again played some competitive chess. He won at New York 1948 with 8/9, ahead of Miguel Najdorf, Max Euwe, and Herman Pilnik. Fine drew a match by 4-4 against Najdorf at New York 1949. He participated in the 1950 radio match USA vs Yugoslavia, drawing his game. Fine was named an International Grandmaster in 1950, on the inaugural list from the FIDE, the World Chess Federation. His last significant tournament was the Maurice Wertheim Memorial at New York 1951, where he scored 7/11 for 4th, as Reshevsky won.

    After Alekhine died in 1946, FIDE (the World Chess Organization) organized a World Chess Championship tournament to determine the new champion. As co-winner in the AVRO tournament, Fine was invited to participate, but he declined, for reasons that are the subject of speculation. Fine had played a third match against Herman Steiner at Los Angeles 1947, winning 5-1; this match was training for his potential world championship appearance.

    Publicly, Fine stated that he could not interrupt work on his doctoral dissertation in psychology. Negotiations over the tournament had been protracted, and for a long time it was unclear whether this World Championship event would in fact take place. Fine wrote that he didn't want to spend many months preparing and then see the tournament cancelled. However, it has also been suggested that Fine declined to play because he suspected there would be collaboration among the three Soviet participants to ensure that one of them won the championship. In the August 2004 issue of Chess Life, for example, GM Larry Evans gave his recollection that "Fine told me he didn't want to waste three months of his life watching Russians throw games to each other." Fine's 1951 written statement on the matter in his book "The World's Greatest Chess Games" was:

    "Unfortunately for the Western masters the Soviet political organization was stronger than that of the West. The U.S. Chess Federation was a meaningless paper organization, generally antagonistic to the needs of its masters. The Dutch Chess Federation did not choose to act. The FIDE was impotent. The result was a rescheduling of the tournament for the following year, with the vital difference that now half was to be played in Holland, half in the U.S.S.R. Dissatisfied with this arrangement and the general tenor of the event, I withdrew."

    Edward Winter discusses the evidence further in a 2007 Chessbase column.

    Fine had a relatively short career in top-level chess, but scored very impressively against top players. He faced five World Champions: Emanuel Lasker (+1 =0 -0); Jose Raul Capablanca (+0 =5 -0); Alexander Alekhine (+3 =4 -2); Max Euwe (+2 =3 -2); and Mikhail Botvinnik (+1 =2 -0). His main American rivals were Samuel Reshevsky (+3 =12 -4); Herman Steiner (+21 =8 -4); Isaac Kashdan (+6 =6 -1); Albert Simonson (+6 =1 -1); Al Horowitz (+10 =7 -2); Arnold Denker (+7 =7 -6); Fred Reinfeld (+10 =7 -5); and Arthur Dake (a shocking +7 =5 -7, but three losses as a sixteen year old against Dake in his twenties). Internationally, Fine faced the best of his time, and usually more than held his own, with three exceptions. He struggled against Paul Keres (+1 =8 -3); Milan Vidmar (+0 =2 -1); and Isaac Boleslavsky (+0 =1 -1). But he handled everyone else: Miguel Najdorf (+3 =5 -3); Savielly Tartakower (+2 =4 -1); Salo Flohr (+2 =7 -0); Grigory Levenfish (+1 =0 -0); George Alan Thomas (+2 =3 -0); Erich Eliskases (+1 =2 -0); Viacheslav Ragozin (+1 =1 -0); Vladimirs Petrovs (+2 =1 -1); Efim Bogolyubov (+1 =1 -0); Jan Foltys (+2 =0 -0); Salo Landau (+4 -0 =1); George Koltanowski (+2 =1 -0); Igor Bondarevsky (+1 =0 -0); Geza Maroczy (+1 =0 -0); William Winter (+4 =0 -0); Ernst Gruenfeld (+1 =0 -0); Gideon Stahlberg (+4 =5 -2); Andor Lilienthal (+1 =0 -0); Laszlo Szabo (+0 =1 -0); Vladas Mikenas (+1 =1 -0); Rudolph Spielmann (+0 =1 -0); and Conel Hugh O'Donel Alexander (+1 =3 -0). Finally, against the new generation of American masters which emerged in the late 1940s, Fine proved he could still perform well: Arthur Bisguier (+1 =1 -0); Larry Evans (+0 =2 -0); George Kramer (+1 =1 -0); and Robert Byrne (+0 =1 -0).

    Although FIDE, the World Chess Federation, did not formally introduce chess ratings for international play until 1970, it is nevertheless possible to retrospectively rate players' performances from before that time. The site chessmetrics.com, which specializes in historical ratings throughout chess history, ranks Fine in the world's top ten players for more than eight years, from March 1936 until October 1942, and then again from January 1949 until December 1950. Between those two periods, he was less active as a player, so his ranking dropped. Fine was #1 in the world from October 1940 until March 1941, was in the top three from December 1938 until June 1942, and reached his peak rating of 2762 in July 1941. However, chessmetrics.com is missing several of Fine's major events from its database.

    After receiving his doctorate in psychology from the University of Southern California, Fine abandoned professional chess to concentrate on his new profession. Fine continued playing chess casually throughout his life (including several friendly games played in 1963 against Bobby Fischer, one of which is included in Fischer's My 60 Memorable Games). In 1956 he wrote an article, "Psychoanalytic Observations on Chess and Chess Masters," for a psychological journal. Later, Fine turned the article into a book, The Psychology of the Chess Player, in which he provided insights steeped in Freudian theory. (Fine is not the first person to examine the mind as it relates to chess—Alfred Binet, the inventor of the IQ test, had studied the mental functionality of good chess players, and found that they often had enhanced mental traits, such as a good memory.) He went on to publish A History of Psychoanalysis (1979) and a number of other books on psychology. As did many psychoanalysts of his day, Fine believed that homosexuality could be "cured" (through conversion therapy), and his opinions on the subject were cited in legal battles over homosexuality, including the legislative battle over same-sex marriage in Hawaii. Fine served as a visiting professor at CCNY, the University of Amsterdam, the Lowell Institute of Technology, and the University of Florence. Fine founded the Creative Living Center in New York City.


    On chess:

    • Basic Chess Endings, by Reuben Fine, 1941, McKay. Revised in 2003 by Pal Benko. ISBN 0-8129-3493-8.
    • The Ideas Behind the Chess Openings, by Reuben Fine, 1943. Revised in 1989. McKay, ISBN 0-8129-1756-1.
    • Practical Chess Openings, by Reuben Fine.
    • The Middlegame in Chess, by Reuben Fine. ISBN 0-8129-3484-9.
    • Modern Chess Openings, sixth Edition, by Reuben Fine.
    • Chess the Easy Way, by Reuben Fine, 1942. 1986 Paperback re-issue. ISBN 0-6716-2427-X
    • Chess Marches On, by Reuben Fine, 1946.
    • Dr. Lasker's Chess Career, by Reuben Fine and Fred Reinfeld, 1935.
    • Lessons From My Games, by Reuben Fine, 1958.
    • The Psychology of the Chess Player, by Reuben Fine, 1967.
    • Bobby Fischer's Conquest of the World's Chess Championship: The Psychology and Tactics of the Title Match, by Reuben Fine, 1973. ISBN 0923891471
    • The World's Great Chess Games, by Reuben Fine; Dover; 1983. ISBN 0-486-24512-8.

    On psychology:

    • Freud: a Critical Re-evaluation of his Theories, by Reuben Fine (1962).
    • The Healing of the Mind, by Reuben Fine (1971).
    • The Development of Freud's Thought, by Reuben Fine (1973).
    • Psychoanalytic Psychology, by Reuben Fine (1975).
    • The History of Psychoanalysis, by Reuben Fine (1979).
    • The Psychoanalytic Vision, by Reuben Fine (1981).
    • The Logic of Psychology, by Reuben Fine (1985).
    • The Meaning of Love in Human Experience, by Reuben Fine (1985).
    • Narcissism, the Self, and Society, by Reuben Fine (1986).
    • The Forgotten Man: Understanding the Male Psyche, by Reuben Fine (1987).


  • #5

    Gregory Kaidanov (Russian: Григорий Кайданов; born October 11, 1959) is a Grandmaster of chess.

    As of April 2007, his Elo rating was 2587, making him the # 9 player in the US and the 179th-highest rated player in the world. His peak rating was 2646 in 2002.

    He was born in Berdychiv, Ukrainian SSR, but in 1960 first moved to Kaliningrad, Russian SFSR.

    He learned to play when he was 6 years old from his father. At age 8, he started to attend a chess study group in 'Pioneer's House.'

    As an adult, he moved to Lexington, Kentucky in 1991, with his two children and wife.

    He won the 1992 World Open in Philadelphia, and the 1992 U.S Open.

    His first major tournament win came in Moscow 1987, where he defeated Indian star Vishwanathan Anand. He earned the IM title that same year, and was awarded the GM title just a year later in 1988.

    He is the head coach of the www.uschessschool.com founded in 2006 by IM Greg Shahade.

    He is one of the most active Grandmaster teachers in the United States.

    He is happily married to Valeria Kaidanov and together have 3 kids: Anastasia (April 18, 1983), Boris (November 16, 1986) and Sonya (December 1, 1994)

    Higlights of his chess career

    • 1972 - Boys under-14 Russian Federation Championship - 1st place
    • 1975 - Became a Candidate of Master (analog of expert in US)
    • 1978 - Became a Master
    • 1987 - Became an International Master
    • 1988 - Became a Grandmaster
    • 1992 - Won World Open Chess Championship
    • 1992 - Won U.S. Open Chess Championship
    • 1993 - Won World Team Chess Championship as a member of US team
    • 1998 - Silver medal in Chess Olympiad as a member of US team
    • 2001 - Won North American Open Chess Championship
    • 2002 - Won Aeroflot Open (one of the strongest open tournaments of all times, with 82 grandmasters participating)
    • 2008 - Won the Gausdal Classic, held April 8-16 in Gausdal, Norway, scoring 7/9.


  • #6

    Ruslan Ponomariov (Ukrainian: Руслан Пономарьов; Russian: Русла́н Пономарёв) (born October 11, 1983) is a Ukrainian chess player and former FIDE world champion.

    On the January 2009 FIDE Elo rating list Ponomariov had a rating of 2726, making him number sixteen in the world and the Ukrainian number two, behind Vassily Ivanchuk. His highest rating ever was 2743 on the April 2002 FIDE list.

    Ponomariov was born in Horlivka in Ukraine to parents of Russian ethnicity. In 1994 he placed third in the World Under-12 Championship at the age of ten. In 1996 he won the European Under-18 Championship at the age of just twelve, and the following year won the World Under-18 Championship. In 1998, at the age of fourteen, he was awarded the Grandmaster title, making him the youngest ever player at that time to hold the title.

    Among Ponomariov's notable later results are first at the Donetsk Zonal in 1998, 5/7 in the European Club Cup 2000 (including a victory over then-FIDE World Champion Alexander Khalifman), joint first with 7.5/9 at Torshavn 2000, 8.5/11 for Ukraine in the 2001 Chess Olympiad in Istanbul, winning gold medal on board 2, and first place with 7/10 in the 2001 Governor's Cup in Kramatorsk.

    In 2002 he beat his fellow countryman Vassily Ivanchuk in the final of the FIDE World Chess Championship 2002 by a score of 4.5-2.5 to become FIDE world champion at the age of eighteen, the first teenager to ever become world champion.

    In the same year he finished second in the very strong Linares tournament behind Garry Kasparov. His result in the strong 2003 Corus tournament at Wijk aan Zee was less good - despite having the third highest Elo rating, he finished only joint eleventh out of fourteen players with 6/13, and at Linares the same year he finished only fifth out of seven with 5.5/12.

    There were plans for him to play a fourteen game match against Kasparov in Yalta in September 2003, the winner of which would go on to play the winner of a match between Vladimir Kramnik and Péter Lékó as part of the so-called "Prague Agreement" to reunify the World Chess Championship (from 1993 until 2006 there were two world chess championships). However, this was called off after Ponomariov refused to sign his contract without reservation.

    Ponomariov remained FIDE champion until Rustam Kasimdzhanov won the FIDE World Chess Championship 2004.

    On Ponomariov's 20th birthday, October 11, 2003, he became the first high-profile player to default a game because of his mobile phone ringing during play. This happened in round one of the European Team Championship in Plovdiv, Bulgaria, when Ponomariov was playing black against Swedish GM Evgenij Agrest.

    He finished in the top 10 in the 2005 FIDE World Cup, which qualified him for the Candidates for the FIDE World Chess Championship 2007, being played in May-June 2007. He was eliminated in the first round, losing 3.5-2.5 to Sergei Rublevsky.

    In his games with white, Ponomariov has almost always played 1. e4 (see chess opening), entering the main lines of the Ruy Lopez and Sicilian Defence. With black, he has played the Sicilian against 1. e4 and also replied 1... e5, going into the Ruy Lopez. Against 1. d4 he has adopted a variety of defences, including the Queen's Gambit Accepted, the Queen's Indian Defence and the King's Indian Defence. Earlier in his career he experimented with the Benko Gambit and Pirc Defence, but as of 2003 these have fallen out of his repertoire.



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