Queen's Indian Defense

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 b6

The Queen's Indian Defense is a hypermodern opening for Black in response to White's 1.d4. When coupled with the Nimzo-Indian Defense, Black gets a complete defense against White's queen's pawn openings. A solid opening, the Queen's Indian is a reputable option for players who seek a "risk-free" game.

Players of all levels can play the Queen's Indian, although it is advisable to have a basic understanding of positional concepts before venturing into this opening. Players seeking to learn the Queen's Indian from the masters can study the games of none other than former world champion GM Anatoly Karpov.

Starting Position

The Queen's Indian Defense occurs after the moves 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 b6. In hypermodern style, Black refrains from immediately occupying the center with pawns and instead focuses on piece development. After White sidesteps the Nimzo-Indian Defense with 3.Nf3, Black plays 3...b6 to either fianchetto the queen's bishop or develop it to a6.

Queen's Indian Defense Chess Openings
The starting position of the Queen's Indian Defense.

Black accepts less space for a solid position that still offers active chances. Black will usually try to exchange off one or two minor pieces to attenuate their problems with space. On the other hand, White can get an advantage if they successfully control the e4-square without making significant concessions.


  • Black avoids creating weaknesses
  • Black enjoys fluid piece play
  • It's a flexible opening


  • It's hard to play for an advantage as Black
  • White can maintain a space advantage

Main Variations Queen's Indian Defense

There are many variations of the Queen's Indian Defense. Below you can see the main lines.

Fianchetto Nimzowitsch Variation

The Fianchetto Nimzowitsch Variation is the most played line of the Queen's Indian Defense and starts after 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 b6 4.g3 Ba6. Black immediately puts pressure on the c4-pawn with their bishop. White's best response is to continue with 5.b3 to protect the pawn, and from there, the game can take many directions.

Fianchetto Traditional Line

The Fianchetto Traditional Line starts after the moves 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 b6 4.g3 Bb7. This line used to be the most popular way of playing the Queen's Indian and is still a good way to play the opening. Black usually manages to exchange a minor piece to alleviate their lack of space. White often plays de d4-d5 push to blunt Black's strong b7-bishop.

Petrosian Variation

The Petrosian Variation occurs with the moves 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 b6 4.a3. This line is perhaps one of the sharpest ways for White to respond to the Queen's Indian. White invests a tempo with a2-a3 to safely develop their queen's knight to c3 without letting Black pin it with ...Bb4. White usually gets a mobile pawn center that helps in creating dangerous attacks.

Kasparov Variation

The Kasparov Variation starts after the moves 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 b6 4.Nc3. White develops the knight and accepts the possibility of transposing to the Nimzo-Indian Defense. White can also transpose into the Petrosian Variation, a strategy that GM Garry Kasparov himself preferred. If play continues in the Kasparov variation, players usually reach drawish positions with no weaknesses on either side.

Spassky System

The Spassky System starts with the moves 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 b6 4.e3. White prepares to develop their light-squared bishop and castle and usually develops their other bishop to b2. Closed positions are common in this line, with complex middlegames where piece maneuvering is essential for survival.

History Of The Queen's Indian Defense

The Queen's Indian Defense was first deeply analyzed and developed by Aron Nimzowitsch and other hypermodernists at the beginning of the 21st century. The opening gained traction between the 1920s and 1930s when there was no doubt that the opening was a solid choice that still left room for Black to fight for a win.

The opening's solid reputation led many to believe that there was no way for White to gain a real advantage against it. This belief was likely part of the reason why interest in fighting against the Queen's Indian slowly decreased after the 1940s.

It wasn't until the 1980s that the opening surged in popularity once again. New ideas for White came to light, rekindling interest in the opening.


Learn The Queen's Indian Defense

Learn the key ideas you'll need to play either side of the Queen's Indian Defense.
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