Why is it worth learning to play chess?
Chess teaches you how to think in a very concrete and precise manner much like physics, mathematics, or computer science.
However it is always specific rather than generalized and involves resistance from your opponent.
You can learn about yourself. People have different styles which reflect their personalities. For example, I play extremely methodically and position-ally, strategically with infinite patience and calm like Karpov. You can learn about others also by observing them. Korchnoi is tenacious and fights bitterly. Capablanca plays wildly aggressively brilliantly daringly.
It is also a game of psychology as much as Texas Hold Em for instance. Chess will help you in negotations and in keeping calm under duress.
After a few years to a decade I think that the transferable skills are mostly learned and at a certain point you are just learning chess...:)