chess history/ \Paul Murphy
The variation familiar to Europeans and Americans traveled through Iran (Persia) to the main commercial centers of Italy and Spain by about 1000 AD. A bit later, sea-faring Vikings carried the game into Scandinavia and Iceland. By 1100-1200 AD, the game became known in central Europe, and was well-established across all of Europe by 1400 AD, with the game rules which we use today. However, Russia's dominance of chess is recent, dating from the communist revolution of 1917, after which government schools for talented chess players were established.
The modern design of chess pieces, such as those offered for sale from USCF at the beginning of this semester, bears the name Staunton, who was an English master in the mid-18OO's. It is now used in all tournaments worldwide.