# Is Chess Complex?

The game structure and nature of chess is related to several branches of mathematics. Many combinatorical and topological problems connected to chess were known of for hundreds of years. In 1913, Ernst Zermelo used it as a basis for his theory of game strategies, which is considered as one of the predecessors of game theory.

The number of legal positions in chess is estimated to be between 10^{43} and 10^{50}, with a game-tree complexity of approximately 10^{123}. The game-tree complexity of chess was first calculated by Claude Shannon as 10^{120}, a number known as the Shannon number. Typically an average position has thirty to forty possible moves, but there may be as few as zero (in the case of checkmate or stalemate) or as many as 218.

The most important mathematical challenge of chess is the development of algorithms which can play chess. The idea of creating a chess playing machine dates to the 18th century; around 1769, the chess playing automaton called The Turk became famous before being exposed as a hoax. Serious trials based on automatons, such as El Ajedrecista, were too complex and limited to be useful.

Here something to think about...

-There are more possible chess moves then the all the grain of sand in the world! - Albert einstein