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Who knows the rules of chess?

hayumasi
Feb 28, 2012, 9:23 PM 0

ancient idians made up chess n there heads 70000 years ago, so why don they get credit for doing what they did 4 us, we shoud start calling it sumthin else?

The Germanic tribes, Jutes, Saxons and the Angles, came to England around the 5th century AD and began to live in the Jutland, Holstein and Schleswig areas. Later on the Jutes settled in Kent and the southern Hampshire, the Saxons in the rest of the south of the Thames area and the modern Middlesex, and the Angles spread throughout the rest of England and as far as up to the Scottish lowlands. In Germanic, Angles were called the Angli, and that was transformed to Engle in Old English, and thus the land of all the three tribes was collectively called (Engle + land) England. The Jutes, Saxons and Angles still held their dialects separately. Later on two separate Anglian dialects developed. The dialect of the north of Humber river was called Northumbrian and of the south was called the MercianAlso the Saxons dialect was called West Saxon as they were settled in the west, and the dialect of Jutes was called the Kentish who were on the southern and eastern sides of the river Thames. Thus, there were four main dialects in England.

In the beginning, the Northumbrians held prominence in literature and culture, but after the Viking invasions (793-865) the cultural leadership went to the West Saxon group. In the later part of 9th century the Parker Chronicle (or Anglo-Saxon Chronicle) was written, and thus, West Saxon’s dialect became the “Standard Old English.” According to the literary development of the English language, it could be classified as: Old English, Middle English, Early Modern English and Modern English.

 

Old English (9th and 10th century).

The English language uses the Latin alphabet of 26 consonants and vowels. In the beginning there were very few words of general use like, words of kinship: faeder, modor, brothor, sweostor, anddohtor; 25 names with their inflections like mon, men (man, men) and some adjectives and verbs. There were two demonstratives: se, seo, thaet (that) and thes, theos (this) but there were no (‘a’ or ‘the’) articles. So ‘the good man’ was written as ‘se (that) goda mon,’ and ‘a good man’ was written as ‘an (one) goda mon.’ Verbs had only two tenses, present-future and past with their inflections.Hors (horse) and maegden (maiden) were neuter gender; eorthe (earth) was feminine but lond (land) was neuter; sunne (sun) was feminine, but mona (moon) was masculine. Inflections were used in abundance, so the word order in a sentence was not of much importance in those days as long as the theme was understood. But Old English is totally incomprehensible for a Modern English knower. It was more like the modern German of today. For example: Hie ne dorston forth bi th ere ea siglan(They dared not sail beyond that river).

 

Modern English (1660 onward).

1660 to 1700 is called the Restoration period because the Parliament, on the public urge, restored the monarchy under Charles II. The period between 1700 and 1750 is called the Augustan Age of English literature’ because the English writers of this period tried to capture the soul of the Latin literature of the period of King Augustus (27 BC - 14 AD), which was considered the peak of the development of Latin literature when Virgil, Horace and Ovid produced their masterpieces.

The further development of English literature happened with the publication of Samuel Johnson’s “Dictionary of the English Language in 1755, and Robert Lowth’s grammar in 1761. The extensive (two volume) work of Samuel Johnson was simplified by the single volume of his dictionary in 1756 which continued to be used up to the 20th century. In fact, since the 13th century, every century had its reformers of the English language.

The grammarians of the 18th century like Robert Lowth and James Buchanan etc. took a critical view and spent a lot of time in correcting the shortcomings and the improprieties of the English language that were commonly in use. For example: ‘I had rather not,’ ‘a third alternative,’ ‘more perfect,’ and ‘you was’ etc. The ‘you was’ term was very commonly used among educated people in those days. It was changed to ‘thou wast’ and then to ‘thou wert’ and finally to ‘you were.’ They held the view that Latin was still a superior language. During that time Lindley Murray published hisGrammar in 1795 followed by English Reader in 1799 and English Spelling Book in 1804. During that period Noah Webster (1758-1843) produced his Spelling Book in 1783, the first edition of hisAmerican Dictionary of English Language in 1828 and a subsequent edition in 1840.

 

Vocabulary of Modern English.

The vocabulary of English language is a mixture of Germanic (Old English and Scandinavian), Greek, Latin and French where almost half of it is Germanic and Greek and half is Latin and French with some of the words from almost all of the notable languages of the world as it had taken free admission from everywhere.

A sample of other adaptations are: Spanish-cigar, mosquito, tornado, tomato (tomate) and potato (patata). Hebrew-amen, manna, messiah, rabbi and jubilee. Norwegian-ski. Finnish- sauna.Russian-mammoth and vodka. Czech-robot. Hungarian-paprika. Portuguese-marmalade, flamingo and molasses. Turkish-turban, coffee and caviar. Hindi-sahib, maharajah, jungle, cheetah, karma, mantra and dhoti. Persian-divan, purdah, bazaar and chess. Tamil-curry. Chinese-tea. Japanese-judo and jujitsu. Malay-ketchup, sago and bamboo. Polynesian-taboo and tattoo. African languages-mumbo jumbo and voodoo. Caribbean-hammock, hurricane and tobacco. These are just a few examples of adaptations.

 

(19th and 20th century) In 1864 Frederick James Furnivall founded the Early English Text Society to initiate the revival of the Medieval English literature and to synchronize it with the gradual development of the English language. As a result of that “A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles,” edited by Sir James A.H. Murray and assisted by three more editors, Bradley, Charles Onions and Craigie, was published in 12 volumes along with its supplements from 1884 to 1928. It gives the inventory and the history of words in use from 1150 up to 1500 of all the five dialects of the Middle English. After 1500 only literary English words are taken, not the dialecticals. It enormously contains the quotations from the English literature and records, and incorporates the words that have entered into English vocabulary from the earliest records to the existing date along with their history and origin. It contains more than 15,000 pages and over 400,000 words. A revised and concise edition of this dictionary called “The Oxford English Dictionary” was first published in 1933.

Dialects of Modern English. There are a number of dialects and subdialects in United Kingdom. For instance, Southeast England, Northern, Midland, Norfolk, South Western, Wales and Lowland Scottish etc. Then, the English speech of America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, India, Gulf countries and Africa has its own peculiarity.

The latest form of the most advanced English language.

The English language is considered to be the world language of today. It has an extensive amount of words not found in other languages and its rich vocabulary may sufficiently accommodate all the situations of a social and technical nature. But, even at the maximum height of its evolution (which took a full 1,500 years since the arrival of the Germanic people in England in the 5th century AD) could you be sure of the spellings of the names of people or their pronunciations unless you are told? Isn’t it a dilemma that the vowels have no fixed sound or phonetic value, like, father, eye, now, son, sun, wherea, e, o and u, all of them sound as a, (long or short), and is either or as in Joan, John, Johnny? It is because the basic alphabetic structure was scientifically wrong from the very beginning; and this is the case with all other languages of the world.

 


Chess

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Chess
A selection of black and white chess pieces on a chequered surface.
From left to right: a white king, a black rook, a blackqueen, a white pawn, a black knight, and a whitebishop
Years active Around 6th century to present
Genre(s) Board game
Players 2
Setup time About 1 minute
Playing time Casual games usually last 10 to 60 minutes; tournament games last anywhere from about ten minutes (blitz chess) to six hours or longer.
Random chance None
Skill(s) required Tacticsstrategy

Chess is a two-player board game played on a chessboard, a square-checkered board with 64 squares arranged in an eight-by-eight grid. It is one of the world's most popular games, played by millions of people worldwide at home, in clubs, online, by correspondence, and intournaments.

Each player begins the game with sixteen pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns, each of these types of pieces moving differently. Pieces are used to attack and capture the opponent's pieces. The object of the game is tocheckmate the opponent's king by placing it under threat of capture ("check") which cannot be avoided. In addition to checkmate, the game can be won by the voluntary resignation of one's opponent, which may occur when too much material is lost, or if checkmate appears unavoidable. A game may result in a draw in several ways, and neither player wins. The course of the game is divided in three phases. The beginning of the game is called the opening (with the development of pieces). The opening yields to the phase called themiddlegame. The last phase is the endgame, generally characterized by the disappearance of queens.

The first official World Chess ChampionWilhelm Steinitz, claimed his title in 1886; the current World Champion is Viswanathan Anand. In addition to the World Championship, there are the Women's World Championship, the Junior World Championship, the World Senior Championship, the Correspondence Chess World Championship, the World Computer Chess Championship, and Blitz and Rapid World Championships. The Chess Olympiad is a popular competition among teams from different nations. Online chess has opened amateur and professional competition to a wide and varied group of players. Chess is a recognized sport of the International Olympic Committee, and international chess competition is sanctioned by the FIDE (Fédération Internationale des Échecs or World Chess Federation). There are also many chess variants that have different rules, different pieces, and different boards.

Commencing in the second half of the 20th century, computers have been programmed to play chess with increasing success to the point where home computers can play chess at a very high level. In the past two decades computer analysis has contributed significantly to chess theory as understood by human players, particularly in the endgame. The computer program Deep Blue was the first machine player to overcome a reigning World Chess Champion when it defeated Garry Kasparov in 1997.

Contents

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Rules

The official rules of chess are maintained by the World Chess Federation. Along with information on official chess tournaments, the rules are described in the FIDE Handbook, Laws of Chess section.[1]

Setup

Pieces at the start of a game
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8 black rook black knight black bishop black queen black king black bishop black knight black rook 8
7 black pawn black pawn black pawn black pawn black pawn black pawn black pawn black pawn 7
6 black king black king black king black king black king black king black king black king 6
5 black king black king black king black king black king black king black king black king 5
4 black king black king black king black king black king black king black king black king 4
3 black king black king black king black king black king black king black king black king 3
2 white pawn white pawn white pawn white pawn white pawn white pawn white pawn white pawn 2
1 white rook white knight white bishop white queen white king

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