The month of Ramadan
"The month of Ramadan is the one in which the Quran was sent down, a guidance for mankind, clear proofs for the guidance, the Criterion; so whoever amongst you witnesses this month, let him fast it." (cf. Surah al-Baqarah 2:185)
The month of holy Ramadan enjoys a special importance in the Islamic calendar. As Holy Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) said: "It is Allah's Own month." It is the chief of all months and the most glorious one. As we already know, 'Fasting' is one of the important pillars of Islam and it is the very month of Ramadan during which fasting has been made obligatory for all adults and sane Muslims. By fasting during Ramadan, a Muslim besides discharging an obligation imposed upon him by Allah (SWT), becomes entitled to great reward in the Hereafter. On the other hand, any lapse in the matter amounts to a great sin. Fasting is an article of worship, the knowledge about the performance or otherwise whereof rests only with Allah (SWT) and the person concerned. Hence, it is Allah (SWT) alone who will reward that person for it, on the Day of Judgment.
The blessings of Ramadan are not limited to fasting alone, because the performance of all sorts of worship and good deeds during this month is also a source of great Divine favor. The revelation of the Holy Quran commenced during this very month and it is therefore the duty of every Muslim to read and try to understand the meaning of the Holy Quran and thereby gain an insight into the Divine secrets enshrined therein. It brings peace and illumination to the mind and imparts purity to the soul.
Holy Ramadan is the month of fasting, intensive prayer, sacrifice and Divine worship. Throughout this month a devout Muslim fasts during the day in the true sense of the word, that is, he had merely denies himself food and water, but as explained by Holy Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.), exercises strict control over his tongue, eyes, ears, thoughts and deeds and does everything possible to seek the pleasure of Allah (SWT).
Devout supplications to Allah (SWT) and repentance of one's sins during Holy Ramadhan are the sources of Divine blessings and mercy. Some nights, among the last ten nights of Ramadan, are called the 'Nights of Glory' (Laylatul Qadr). These are the 19th, 21st, and 23rd nights. Muslims keep awake during these nights and offer special prayers. Even among these nights, the 23rd enjoys excellence over all the others. It is accompanied by great blessings, and he usually grants the supplications made to Allah (SWT) during this night.
The month of holy Ramadan, besides being the month of worship and Divine blessings, carries a historical importance as well. As already mentioned above, the revelations of the Holy Quran commenced in this month. The epoch-making 'Battle of Badr' and the 'Conquest of Makkah' also took place during the holy month of Ramadan.
"Ramadhan", according to some traditions is one of Allah's names. This is why we can not say Ramadhan without making it clear that we are talking about the month, and therefore we should always say the month of Ramadhan. Commander of the faithful, Imam Ali ibn Abi Taleb (A.S.) said: Do not say Ramadan, but say the month of Ramadhan. For you do not know what Ramadan is? This same meaning was referred to by Holy Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) in his speech during Shaaban: The month of Allah (SWT) is coming