Introducing: Karl Ernst Adolf Anderssen
The German chess master Karl Ernst Adolf Anderssen (July 6, 1818 - March 13, 1879) is generally considered to have been the leading chess player in the world from 1851-1858 and 1861-1866. He was "dethroned" temporarily in 1858 by Paul Morphy, who announced his own retirement from chess in 1859, and permanently in 1866 by Wilhelm Steinitz, who dominated chess until his own defeat by Emanuel Lasker in 1894.
After his defeat by Steinitz, Anderssen became the most successful tournament player in Europe, winning over the half the events he entered - including the 1870 Baden-Baden event, which is considered comparable in the strength of its contestants to recent "super tournaments". Remarkably, Anderssen achieved most of these successes when he was over the age of 50.
Anderssen was a very important figure in the development of chess problems, driving forward the transition from the "Old School" of problem composition to the elegance and complexity of modern compositions.
He was also one of the most likeable of chess masters and became an "elder statesman" of the game, to whom others turned for advice or arbitration.