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1672 reprint of Barbier's version of ""The famous game of chesse-play"
from the National Biography, vol. 50 (p.313)
A reprint of this same book in 1640 by Jo. Barbier made some additions and modifications.
From Saul's edition:
From Barbier's reprint:
Two interesting names are Fooles Mate and Le Mat du Bergier.
The name, Fool's Mate, seems appropo and has retained that name since at least the 17th century and probably long before. I found it called, in French, Le Mat de l'Imbécile or simply Le Mat du Sot (both seemingly meaning Fool's Mate). While it's also referred to as Le Mat du Débutant (beginner's Mate), the most common current term seems to be Le Mat du Lion (Lion's Mate).
Now it get's interesting. I've seen Fool's Mate also referred to in French as Le Mat de l'Écolier. This translates roughly as Schoolboy's Mate, or possibly as Scholar's Mate. It seems that a possible origin for the term Scholar's Mate could be derived from the interpetation of "schoolboy" as "scholar."
Scholar's Mate, however, as shown above, in French is called, Le Mat du Bergier (as Barbier called it) or Le Mat du Berger which means Shepherd's Mate. In German Scholar's Mate is also Shepherd's Mate (Schäfermatt) as it is also in Spanish (Mate del Pastor) and Dutch (Herdersmat). The Serbian Школски мат seems close to Scholar's Mate, along the same line as the French Le Mat de l'Écolier.
*According to "A Game at Chess: Thomas Middleton" by H.T. Howard-Hill, 1993, P.28, Barbier's first reprint of Saul's "Famous Game of Chesse-play" appeared in 1618, only 4 years after Saul's original.