Chess during World War I In Germany And Austria/Hungary [Central Powers]

Chess during World War I In Germany And Austria/Hungary [Central Powers]

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After a previous blog on chess in London during WWI, the idea of one equivalent for the Central Powers of the war felt attractive; but at first seemed a little difficult, so was left behind. I've recently tracked, however, some photos in the Austrian press of the time, that could be considered as part of a war propaganda; like the one on top. Don't know if it's natural or set up... but in any case it was interesting enough in a way, so to choose it for top. My alternatives were the famous one of Berlin Grandmasters 1918 [shown below], as it contained maybe the most important chess figures of the time for these lands: Schlechter, maybe the most steady one, with a chess column and games all over this period, Lasker the champion, Kagan the organizer, Tarrasch with some intense chess activity too, Rubinstein... or one of Emanuel Lasker of 1919 that was letting out somehow some sadness [shown below too]. Generally to track a photo that would represent the topic was a little difficult...

Commonly used abbreviations:

  • ACB: American Chess Bulletin
  • ARDM: The Life & Games of Akiva Rubinstein by John Donaldson & Nikolay Minev, 2006
  • ASZ: Allgemeine Sport-Zeitung
  • BCM: British Chess Magazine
  • GBA: Gyula Breyer: The Chess Revolutionary by Jimmy Adams, 2017
  • TFS: Tidskrift för Schack
  • TNS: Tijdschrift van den Nederlandschen Schaakbond
  • WSZ: Wiener Schachzeitung


After Mannheim

The famous 19th DSB Congress of 1914 in Mannheim was interrupted by the outbreak of the Great War in August. Eleven players coming from territories of the Russian Empire were found in the land of the enemy Germany: Alekhine, Bogoljubov, Bogatyrchuk, Flamberg, Koppelman, Maljutin, Rabinovich, Romanovsky, Saburov, Selezniev, Weinstein. Firstly were interned in the Mannheim police station, and soon transferred in a Rastatt prison. In late Aug 1914 they can be found in Baden-Baden, happily in a hotel now. And since Dec 1914 in Triberg. Alekhine, Bogatyrchuk, Saburov & Koppelman managed to cross the borders soon [Sep 1914] and tried to return home via Switzerland. Fifth was probably Romanovsky who left Germany in the spring of 1915; while Maljutin was writing on Aug 30 to BCM [1916, 340] from Stockholm that he managed to get free. Rest later or after the war. But Bogoljubov probably never left, as it seems that he found the love in Triberg.

In prison Alekhine and Bogoljubov, not having a chess set available, played some blindfold games. The following was published really later, in De Telegraaf of Nov 21, 1940, but according to Anthony Gillam it has been cross-checked with a Schelfhout scrapbook at the Royal Dutch Library.


During the Russians' stay in Germany, mini tournaments were organized, 8 totally recorded. Highlighting:

The first was in Baden-Baden [Oct 1914], and the rest seven in Triberg; most won by Bogoljubov. A match Bogoljubov vs Rabinovich took place in Baden-Baden in 1914, for a prize of 100 marks offered by Alekhine; Bogoljubov won with +5-0=2. In the 7th tournament in Triberg [Apr-May 1916], Swiss chess master Hans Fahrni participated. He also played a match against Selezniev, that possibly was a draw with +2-2=2. While since the spring of 1915 the British Chess Federation started to offer some support to the remaining internees. This seems that started after a suggestion of Maljutin; he actually asked for financial help from BCF, in return of fully and carefully annotated games sent for publishing to Britain [BCM 1915, 177]. A following tournament in Triberg [Aug 1915] eg, funded this way, was a thematic one: King's gambit. Via later correspondence, Maljutin asked from BCM the issues of these published games, request happily accepted [BCM 1916, 199]. I've also tracked in the Dutch press of 1917 consultation games played with the Vienna gambit, by Bogoljubov, Flamberg, Rabinovich & Weinstein in pairs; but possibly are earlier as Flamberg was allowed to return since 1916 to Warsaw, under German administration at the time [BCM 1916, 242].


sources: TNS 6/1915, 109 & others in Dutch, British and Austrian press, Mannheim 1914 and the Interned Russians by Anthony Gillam - web article of Aug 6, 2014, The Truth is out there by Brian Almeida - web article of Aug 20, 2014, Winter's CN 3540, Winter's CN 8773.


The Leopold Trebitsch Memorial Tournaments

Maybe the most steady chess event during these years in these territories; a tournament in the memory of Leopold Trebitsch (1842–1906) and funded by his family. It started in 1907, and was repeated afterwards but not exactly yearly. However during the war, towards the end of each year, a relevant tournament was taking place in the Vienna Chess Club.

Carl Schlechter
Carl Schlechter a little younger, in Wiener Bilder of 12.01.1919, 11

6th Trebitsch Memorial 1914: Nov 12 - Dec 31. Won by Schlechter with 11½/14, second was Kaufmann, Reti & Spielmann shared 3rd and 4th place. 8 participants, double round. Maybe the event with the most games presented in the Schlechter's chess column in ASZ. Shortly after the tournament [Jan-Feb 1915] a match between Kaufmann & Reti took place in the club. Kaufmann won with +4-1=1 [WSZ 1915, 76-77]. It caused some surprise in the press. Reti also participated in a mini tournament with only 4 players in March [WSZ 1915, 154].

7th Trebitsch Memorial 1915: Oct 30 - Dec 7. Won by Schlechter with 10/14, ahead of Reti & Kaufmann. 6 participants, 3 games with each player. A couple of months later a mini match between Kaufmann and Tartakower took place in the club [in March?], that Kaufmann won with +2-0=2 [ASZ 28.03.1916, 192]. Tartakower, a lieutenant then, had fought for Austria in the Eastern front; and probably earned a medal for his services [ASZ 31.01.1915, 79 & 30.08.1915, 694]. A winter tournament followed in the club, won by Krejcik [WSZ 1916, 10].

8th Trebitsch Memorial 1916/17: Nov 21, 1916 - Jan 6, 1917 [?]. Schlechter won again with 6½/12. Vidmar finished second with 6, then Kaufmann with 5½. Only these 3 participants; 6 games against each other. The tournament started on Nov 21 and lasted almost 6 weeks [maybe something more], according to ASZ 21.01.1917, 44. It isn't mentioned as a Trebitsch Memorial tournament; but just as a Vienna Club one. However in the report of the following Trebitsch of 1917/18 [in ASZ 13.01.1918, 16], Schlechter is appeared as the winner of the four previous ones during 1913-1917. More possible is that at the time the annual big event in the club was considered a Trebitsch Memorial.

9th Trebitsch Memorial 1917/18: Nov 26, 1917 - Jan 2, 1918. Won by Vidmar with 8/12, Althof was 2nd & Schlechter 3rd. 4 participants with 4 games against each opponent. Althof was a cover name for Dr. Tartakower. After the tournament Vidmar & Tartakower played in the club a match of 5 games, where Vidmar prevailed, according to TNS [4/1918, 80 & 7/1918, 130]. Edo ratings page gives a score of 4/6 for Vidmar.

In the 6th Trebitsch Memorial, Kaufmann won a brilliancy prize by Abonyi for his win against Spielmann [WSZ 1914, 216-217]. However I've liked this Schlechter's only defeat, possibly for the balances in the middlegame.


A beautiful sacrificing attack by Schlechter [& maybe a known pattern]


And a Vidmar's win over Tartakower

Matches in Berlin in the mid-war

During the war years, and till late 1917, it doesn't seem to take place some tournament in Germany, and specifically in Berlin. Only few matches or single games.

There's a mention of two matches between Ernst Schutte, editor of the chess column of "Hamburger Nachrichten", and Albert Hallgarten, a Consul General; possibly in the spring of 1915 and in Hamburg. Schutte won with +7-1=2 and +8-0=2 [WSZ 1915, 108].

First big match that I've tracked was a Tarrasch vs Mieses one, during Sep-Oct 1916 in the famous Kerkau Cafe [Palast], Berlin.

On Kerkau Cafe: The famous Kerkau Cafe in Berlin owned by Hugo Kerkau was residing firstly in the Equitable-Palast [Leipziger & Friedrichstrasse]; a chess haunt that had hosted many events and was the seat of the Berlin Chess Club since 1901 [according to Andre Schulz]. Since 1909-1910 Hugo Kerkau seems that grew his business and transferred it in a newly constructed building [on Behrenstrasse]; probably leaving the previous one, as it's written in Innendekoration [1910, 369]. This new place was called Kerkau-Palast. However in the early years of its life was still mentioned as Kerkau Cafe by some, even in the German press like the aforementioned Innendekoration magazine. In BCM 1918, 118, on the Schlechter-Rubinstein 1918 match it's written: "... at the Kerkaupalast (now no longer allowed to be called the Café Kerkau)". I've also tracked this place called as Kerkau Cafe in many chess magazines out of Germany or Austria. Nevertheless, when the Kerkau place is mentioned after 1910, the Kerkau-Palast is probably meant.

Initially it was arranged that the first to 5 wins, draws not counting, would win the match; however after 5 games and as Tarrasch was ahead with +4-0=1, it was agreed an extension to 7 wins. In the end Tarrasch prevailed with +7-2=4 [ASZ 15.10.1916, 818]. It started at Sep 9 and lasted about 4 weeks. I'd read about a previous short match of 2 games between them in 1915 and won by Mieses, but I couldn't track a mention of it in the press of the time.

Tarrasch vs Mieses, Berlin 1916
Tarrasch vs Mieses, 1916, in Sport im Bild 22/1916, 302

A weird fact is that all games with Tarrasch in white were French defense ones; and all with Mieses in white were Scotch games. Another thing is that two games were considered worthy for a brilliancy prize; one of each. Firstly the third game of the match, won by Tarrasch; a brilliant miniature. He earned 100 marks awarded by Otto Rosenfelt, Trading Counsil in Stuttgart, after the advice of Dr. E. Lasker. Then the eighth game, won by Mieses; a longer one decided in a same-color B endgame. Some Kurt Steinweg of Cologne offered 100 marks for this [TNS 12/1916, 263-264]. My attention, however, was drawn more at the ninth game. How a balance was resolved, leaving in the end a winning pawn; something that both sides missed in a way, as it seems.


Tarrasch seems to be of the few who played some chess during the war. Some lone games, that he played in Munich, were published, that can be found in TFS. At an other instance, in 1915, he seems commenting with some irony, actually calling it childish, the fact that the London chess club removed him from the list of its honorary members, along with Lasker [ASZ 11.09.1915, 536 & ACB 1915, 225]. Probably the fact that he had already lost his son Fritz on the war field in May, had played its part [WSZ 1915, 110]. Anyway...

Almost a month after his previous match, Tarrasch played another one against Lasker. It took place during Nov 25 - Dec 10, 1916, again in the Kerkau-palast. Lasker dominated with 5½/6 [an informative entry from Lasker's match book in simaginfan's The Lasker - Tarrasch Match of 1916. A Quick Look].

Lasker - Tarrasch, Berlin 1916
Lasker - Tarrasch, Berlin 1916, from Lasker project in 

The 2nd game was the most interesting for me. How a step by step positional advantage of Tarrasch was lost. I've tracked it in TFS 1/1917, 16, with Tarrasch's comments; and possibly given directly to the magazine as there's no mention of another source. Generally I'd seen games of Tarrasch in the magazine played the previous years. Strangely enough, at two instances the game had a different move-sequence, that, however, is making sense.


Regarding Lasker and World War I, Isaak and Vladimir Linder are writing in Em. Lasker, 2010, p. 54 [?]: "During the years of the First World War, Lasker adopted, willy-nilly, a 'super-patriot' stance, applauding the politics of Wilhelm II. While his chief rival, the Cuban José Raúl Capablanca, was polishing his mastery in American tournaments, the king of the chess world found himself at the epicenter of worldwide catastrophe. Naturally, he kept abreast of the most important events, whether it was following the vicissitudes of the Battle of the Ardennes, or worrying about the outcome of the Helgoland engagement between the English and German fleets."

Emanuel Lasker
Emanuel Lasker in Sport im Bild 14/1919, 185


Gyula Breyer in Budapest

Budapest kept some chess activity during these years, though it seems a little irregular; and Breyer already a leading player, dominated. "During the First World War he was esempted from military service, probably due to his ill health. Because of the War, for most of the time only 4 or 5 outstanding players could participated in domestic tournaments during that period", GBA, p. 829.

In Nov-Dec 1914, a tournament took place in the Budapest Chess Club with 9 participants. Breyer won with 7 points, ahead of Havasi and Barasz. The only possibLy recorded game of this winter that survived, is a consultation one of Breyer & Havasy vs Aztalos & Barracz, 1-0, played in Feb 12, 1915 [WSZ 1915, 74, ASZ 07.03.1915, 144, TNS 09/1917, 168, GBA, p. 344].

Next one was in Mar - Apr 1916, with 12 participants; Breyer & Gajdos came first with 9½, 3rd was Havasi [found only in GBA, p. 354].

In the end of the same year, Nov-Dec, a small tournament of 4 players was won decisively by Breyer with 5/5, Balla came second and Reti third. Johannes Esser, a Dutch doctor who was offering his services at the front, participated but finished last [TNS 12/1916, 280].

A following tournament of 5 players started on May 29, 1917, but games were possibly a little scattered afterwards. Breyer finished first with 5/8, Barasz and Sterk shared 2-3 with 4/8 [GBA, p. 412, table in Het vaderland of 06-10-1917]. In this tournament Breyer played maybe his most famous game against Esser, that will follow.

Last tracked chess event in Budapest before the end of the war, took place in Feb 1918 with 5 players. Breyer & Balla shared first with 5, third was Aztalos [found only in GBA, p. 452].

Gyula Breyer in 1913
Gyula Breyer in 1913, detail from Debreczin 1913 group photo in WSZ 1914, 9

The following game was played in Jul 1917 and it has been admired by many. Adams in GBA, p. 427ff is giving comments by many authors, like Reti, Haag, Dvoretsky, Bilek or even few by Breyer himself. Some selected are included in the pgn. What's fascinating is that if Esser could see Breyer's plan, he could prevent keeping some advantage; actually +1 pawn. But maybe it was a little difficult. Another thing is that when one could see easily that Breyer's plan worked, possibly time pressure didn't let the game to end in few moves; instead both players made blunders.


Something's changing... at least in a way

On Dec 15, 1917, and after about 25 days of negotiations, an armistice between Russia and the Central Powers was signed in the city of Brest, Belarus; a consequence of Russia's October Revolution of 1917. It was the first official act ending the war of the eastern front; though the general upheaval in Russian Empire and the political changes there, since early 1917, had already reduced drastically the effectiveness of the Russian army.

As it would be expected, the collapse of the eastern front, mostly in Germans' favor, would have some influence on the chess life of the Central Powers. Since Nov 1917, Berlin seems to be revived and bigger tournaments are organized again; while even the reappearance of the great Polish master Rubinstein can't be considered irrelevant of the fact that peace returned at these lands.

First major event I've tracked is the 90th Anniversary chess tournament of the Berlin Chess Club. It took place between Oct 24 - Nov 25, 1917; Walter John & Paul Johner shared 1st place with 9½/11, Post & Zirker shared 3-4 with 7/11 [TNS 3/1918, 38]. Thought it was an event that was overshadowed by some following more celebrated ones, a photo was found...

Berlin 1917 90th Anniversary chess tournament
Berlin 1917 90th Anniversary chess tournament in Sport im Bild 46/1917, 639


Schlechter - Rubinstein, Berlin 1918

First out of Poland games for Rubinstein since the war outbreak. He seems to be confined in Warsaw during these years, with few games against domestic masters [ARDM, v.1, p. 304]. Generally Poland [part of the Russian Empire in 1914, but somehow autonomous with a strong independence movement], was a troubled area during the war; firstly was a battlefield of the Eastern front, then suffered a scorched earth policy by Russians during the retreat of their troops, and since Aug 1915 under German occupation.

The match was played from 21st to 30th of January in the Kerkau-Palast Cafe, Berlin, and Akiba won with +2-1=3. Bernhard Kagan probably organized it; he edited afterwards a match-book. However, in BCM 1918, 51-52 was written: "Akuba Rubinstein, the Russian master, seems to have thrown in his lot with his country's enemies, for, after residing and playing chess in Warsaw under German-Austrian rule, he arranged to play a match against Schlechter in December last. We learn from the Tijdschrift van den Nederlandschen Schaakbond, however, that this match has been postponed". This was TNS 12/1917, 239, where the claimed reason of this postponement were the higher financial demands of Rubinstein. Nevertheless, in ASZ 13.01.1918, 16, Schlechter was writing that the winner and the loser of the match, that actually took place, would get 1000 & 600 marks respectively. [check also Chess in 1918: Rubinstein - Schlechter in chessmarginalia]

Maybe not of the most spectacular chess fights. Rubinstein outside of strong competition for years, Schlechter of ill-health. Just a game...


Rubinstein - Schlechter, Berlin 1918
Rubinstein & Schlechter, Berlin 1918, in Sport im Bild 5/1918, 54


Four Masters Berlin 1918

An event that seems not getting much of publicity; meaning that it was announced, but without easily found details or games in the at the time press. Not even in ASZ, though Schlechter was playing. It took place from 21st to 30th of April, 1918, in Berlin. TNS is mentioning specifically the Kerkau Cafe. Vidmar won [TNS 5/1918, 90, ASZ 20.04.1918, 188, TFS 4-6/1918, 106, ACB 1918, 147, BCM 1918, 197].

table from TNS 5/1918, 90

An interesting fact is that against Rubinstein's d4-c4 white pawns, all three of his opponents played the recently [re]discovered Budapest defense; and with success. Rubinstein scored just half a point in these three games. TNS is mentioning that afterwards Rubinstein expressed the desire for a match against Vidmar; a match that never occurred. Donaldson & Minev stated that this Rubinstein's wish came up due to the aforementioned results. He was upset as Vidmar beat him twice [in ARDM, v.1, 315].


Milan Vidmar in St Petersburg 1909
Milan Vidmar in St Petersburg 1909, detail from group photo in Шахматное обозрение 79-82/1909, 20


Kaschau 1918

Maybe the only big international tournament during the war years; the 1st Charousek Memorial. It was in Kassa, Slovakia [then part of Hungary], from 5 to 19 of August, 1918.

A little of irony: it was the first big international chess event, but after it was started, it also started, with the battle of Amiens [Aug 8-12], the Hundred Days Offensive of the allied powers; the last series of battles that decided the war outcome.

In Kaschau, Reti won convincingly with 10/11. It was also the first appearance of Grunfeld and Breyer in such an event. We've seen Breyer above; Grunfeld had some chess activity during the war with the Landstrasser Chess Club in Vienna. Adams [in GBA, p. 464] calls this event as the "Arrival of the Hypermoderns" [TNS 9/1918, 179, BCM 1918, 337, check also Kassa (1918) in zanchess].

table from TNS 9/1918, 179

The most notable game for me is one played in the last round between Vidmar and Reti. Vidmar needed only a win to share the first place with Reti. It's possibly the first one where the poison pawn variation in the London system appeared; but I have already analyzed it for a previous blog on poison pawn variations. In the chess press of the time it was mostly presented the Reti's win over Janos Balogh in the 2nd round; this was a KGA. I've also liked the following brilliant shorty...


Schlechter vs Reti in Kosice 1918
Schlechter vs Reti in Kosice 1918, Holubčík archive found in 


Berlin Grandmasters 1918

A double round 4-player tournament was organized by Kagan in Kerkau-Palast, Berlin; from September 28th to October 11th 1918. A big event, regarding the names. Prizes were 1200, 1000, 900 & 700 marks [ASZ 22.09.1918, 595], but BCM [1918, 233], reminded us that "the value of mark has declined somewhat of recent years".

table in TNS 10/1918, 198

Just a game that attracted my attention...


And a famous photo...

Berlin Grandmasters 1918
Lasker, Rubinstein, Schlechter, Tarrasch, with Kagan standing, Berlin Grandmasters 1918


Simultaneous exhibitions

Perhaps, during the war years, individual chess games became more rare, however simuls did occur; possibly with a thought to entertain the suffering by war people. Nevertheless, some are mentioned as "in favor of the Red Cross". Here're some I've tracked, with a try to avoid duplications, though dates aren't always certain. I've picked the more famous names.

A simultaneous chess exhibition of Kagan in Kerkau Cafe, 1916
A simultaneous of Kagan in Kerkau Cafe, probably Palast, in Sport im Bild 9/1916, 106
  • Vienna 1914. Savielly Tartakower. Oct 18, 1914. Blindfold 5 boards. +2-2=1. ASZ 25.10.1914, 964
  • Frankfurt 1914. Richard Réti. Oct 19, 1914. Blindfold 6 boards. +4-1=1. WSZ 1915, 80
  • Munich 1915. Siegbert Tarrasch. 20 boards. +18-2=0. ASZ 07.03.1915, 144
  • Munich 1915. Hans Fahrni. 36 boards. +24-4=8. ASZ 21.03.1915, 168
  • Vienna 1915. Richard Réti. Klub der Schachfreunde-Mar 6, 1915. Blindfold 10 boards. +5-2=3. ASZ 21.03.1915, 168, WSZ 1915, 78
  • Frankfurt 1915. Emanuel Lasker. Mar 5, 1915. 22 boards. +22-0=3. WSZ 1915, 80
  • Berlin 1915. Rudolf Spielmann. Kerkau Cafe-Oct 16, 1915. Blindfold 5 boards. +4-0=1. TNS 12/1915, 239
  • Berlin 1915. Rudolf Spielmann. Kerkau Cafe-Oct 19, 1915. 30 boards. +20-2=8. TNS 12/1915, 239
  • Innsbruck 1916. Rudolf Spielmann. Jan 22, 1916. 31 boards. +25-3=3. WSZ 1916, 6
  • Prague 1916. Carl Schlechter. Jan 16, 1916. 37 boards. +24-4=9. TNS 3/1916, 60
  • Budapest 1916. Emanuel Lasker. 30 boards. +28-0=2. TNS 03/1918, 60
  • Kaschau 1916. Emanuel Lasker. 32 boards. +25-0=7. TNS 03/1918, 60
  • Timisoara 1916. Emanuel Lasker. 32 boards. +24-3=5. TNS 03/1918, 60
  • Raab 1916. Emanuel Lasker. 30 boards. +29-1=0. TNS 03/1918, 60
  • Berlin 1916. Bernhard Kagan. Kerkau Cafe-few days before Mar 3, 1916. a) 35 boards. +27-4=4. b) 23 boards. +20-1=2. Sport im Bild 03.03.1916 [9], 105
  • Vienna 1916. Carl Schlechter. Dom-Cafe. 22 boards. +15-3=4. ASZ 13.05.1916, 336
  • Vienna 1916. Richard Réti. Blindfold 10 boards. +3-1=6. ASZ 27.05.1916, 390
  • Berlin 1916. Siegbert Tarrasch. 25 boards. +24-1=0. Twentsch dagblad Tubantia of 10.06.1916
  • Leipzig 1916. Siegbert Tarrasch. 30 boards. +27-1=2. Twentsch dagblad Tubantia of 10.06.1916
  • Berlin 1916. Jacques Mieses. Blindfold 5 boards. +4-1=0. Twentsch dagblad Tubantia of 25.11.1916
  • Budapest 1917. Emanuel Lasker. Oct 29, 1917. 30 boards. +28-0=2. Pester Lloyd 30.10.1917, 12
  • Berlin 1918. Akiba Rubinstein. Kerkau Cafe-Jan 19, 1918. 25 boards. +24-1=0. ARDM, v.1, 364
A simultaneous exhibition by Lasker in Berlin
A simultaneous exhibition by Lasker in Berlin, in Sport im Bild 17/1918, 214. I haven't tracked some account of it in the press, just possible games in databases, played in 1916

Inter alia, news came from occupied Warsaw to Germany and Austria/Hungary. A 5-year old chess prodigy played on Feb 11, 1917, a game against Rubinstein; Akiba won of course playing blindfold. This boy was Samuel Reshevsky [TNS 03/1917, 60, Teplitz-Schönauer Anzeiger 03.03.1917, ARDM, v.1, 363, Chess Life & Review 1971, 641]. In Sep 1917 Reshevsky appeared in Vienna, where he gave at least 3 simultaneous exhibitions, taking in account the different scores: (a) Vienna +3-2=1 in ASZ 15.09.1917, 668, (b) Vienna, +4-0=2 in Grazer Tagblatt 20.09.1917, (c) Vienna, +5-0=1 in Neues Wiener Tagblatt 22.09.1917.

Samuel Reshevsky in 1917
Samuel Reshevsky in Wiener Bilder 30.09.1917, 11


Chess in the War Fields

And in the end here're some photos I've found in the Austrian press, where chess is used maybe as a propaganda tool. Maybe...

Österreichische Illustrierte Zeitung.17.06.1917.711

Sport im Bild 22/1915, 277

Sport im Bild 13/1917, 166

Sport im Bild 31/1915, 387

Das interessante Blatt 03.02.1916, 6

Spielmann [??] in Das interessante Blatt 4.11.1915, 6

Die Muskete 20.5.1915, 8



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