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# the pawn part 1 (Pawn principles)

• #1

This post will talk about the pawn theory's..

1- Pawn principles:

Let's start with the very central point of the blockade square. The blockade square is simply the square at the very front on a pawn or two or at max. 3 squares in front of it.  Let's see an example for a better comprehension..

In the example 1 Black has no way to stop White to conqueer the important d6 blockade square..  In this example, we call the d4 pawn a candidate, that just mean that the d4 pawn have no ennemy pawn in front of him.  The e7 and c7 pawn are called "sentinelle" that mean that they can try to block the candidate pawn.  But the candidate pawn also have his "acolytes".  In this previous example they are the pawns c2 and e2.  They are here to try to help the candidate pawn to turn into Queen. Because the candidate is an candidate to be promoted.

Here one important rule about all that:  -If the number of "sentinelles" are more high that the number of the acolytes, then the candidate automatically become a pseudo-candidate...

- and also don't forget that a candidate is powerfull but a passed pawn is stronger and the protected passed pawn is the strongest!!

- and finally the best minor piece for occupy an ennemy blockade square is often the Knight!

now, let's see anther example:

In the example 2, the White candidate cannot pass the blockade square because of the 2 sentinelles on the Kingside of the board..  The sentinelle f6 (also a pseudo-candidate at the same time) simply block any way for White with the help of e7.

Let's see a final example for illustrade this blockade square concept:

In this another example the pass on the d4 candidate of the e5 and d6 squares is garanted because of the acolytes f2...

Now, let's talk about the importance of the number of the units.  The number of units is simply the number of groups of pawn isolated by one space on one side of the board.. Let's see an example for a better comprehension..

In the last example, the White has a better position because they have 2 units comparatively to 4 units for Black.  The less units you got the stronger you are because with less units, yours pawn are more able to cooperated are protect each other ... simply because they are less dislocated..This phenomen is also called vertical dislocation.

Now, let's talk about the horizontal dislocation with starting immediatly with an visual example..

Here, we can see that White have a horizontal dislocation and with this fact, Black got a better position here.

Its time now to talk about the "commander pawn". The commander pawn is simply the more avanced pawn of an closed position..Let's see an example.

In this previous example, e4 and c5 are two commander's who will be relatively easy to defend because they are under the median line of the board..

In this other example, e5 and d4 are two commanders pawn but they may will be more difficult to defend because they have passed the median line of the board and are now located into the "ennemy territory"...  Let's see a final example about the concept of the commander pawn..

In this example we are able to fixed many commander pawns (d4-f4-d5-f5).  In this kind of situation they are simply are waiting for see which one will be more effective for be THE commander.

Now, let's see the so important concept on the "béliers".  The bélier is simply the pawn in the very front blockade square of another pawn. I will show you a visual example for an easier comprehension.

Here the e4 and the e5 pawn are into a bélier situation.  Let's see now some important rules to understand with the béliers

- Is very important to know that the béliers are the solidification of an position.

- so, who want to attack must try to limited as much as possible the formation of the béliers on the board and try to eliminated this same formation of pawns who are already on the board!

Now, let's talk about the duo.  The duo are simply two pawns of the same army sitting side by side.  The duo may be very stronger and that's why it are an important concept.

- Don't forget that is by the duo that the pawns can became the more effective, with a minimum of energy..

let's see a perfect visual example about what i just said.

In this example we can see that with only 2 duo of pawns, White can control all the 5th rank of the board...

- and that's why as soon as is keep possible, the pawns must be moved in order to form duo or to keep the possibility to form it... and always look for new possibilities of duo's...

- And you must also know that the commander pawn are often a good choice to form an important duo!..

Let's see now if you can solve this puzzle with the ideas of the duo, the passed pawn and the commander pawn concepts...

Now, i will talk you about the stairs. A stair is simply a term to illustrade a situation where two ennemy pawn are in situation to be able to take each other.  Let's see an example.

This is an example of a stair.

You must know that the maintain of this situation af stair will create some tension.. often, in a real game situation, each army will try to force the ennemy to capture the pawn..

Let's look at a more complete example, with a diagram (don't forget to look under diagram for comment between moves...:

Now, with all that in mind, let's return the so important duo concept to look at the laisy duo conceptIf the pawns of a duo have no contact with ennemy pawns they will be called laisy duo.  We will normaly see defensive pawns who command only defensive zone squares with this description..  But a duo of commander pawns sitting on a central square can also, some times, stay a long time with the "étiquette" of a laisy duo.  Let's see an example of this right now..

In this example, we can see a lot of laisy duo and this situation tend to be a little "weighty".

Let's talk about the duo "tampon".  The duo tampon are simply a particular formation of laisy duo.  Let's look at a concrete exanple of that..

- In a situation of duo tampon, the attacker must force the exchange or try to opening somes lines by pushing one of the two pawns of the duo! (but watch out to not do the opposite by the advance of the pawn going to built a formation with 2 béliers fixed)..

Let's see an example of duo tampon..

let's talk about the duo "pendant", the duo pendant are simply a duo composed by pawns not protected..let's see a common example of this..

The duo pendant in the center are a great advantage by the great mobility that it create often some occasion of "lightning attack" but also got a big disadvantage in order at the caracteristics to this duo to also have less aptitude to re-create some new duo in the future (just like we see in the previous example)..
Let's talk about the passed duo.  The passed duo are simply two passed pawns of the same army side by side on the board..  This situation are VERY POWERFUL.  This is the best formation possible of duo.  The powerful of passed duo are so great that the fact that they have or not some acolytes have often no importance at all!...
Let's see an example of it..

And also, let's talk about the pawn majority.  A pawn majority is simply the fact about having more pawns that our opponent on one side of the board (Kingside or queenside).

You must know that when you have a pawn majority on one side of the board you MUST try to find a way to take advantage of it.  Often by gaining space..

- In the middlegame a kingside majority is often more complicated to enjoy that an Queenside majority..

- And the more important rule: the majority must soon or later going to be transformed into a passed pawn situation!

Let's see an example of what is a pawn majority:

On the last example White have a pawn majority on the Queenside and Black have the "minor majority in the middlegame only" mojority of the Kingside..

and now, let's see our last principle view here on this part, the backward pawn.  The backward pawn are simply an candidate with a blockade square very weaken..  This weakening come from too part.  firstly from the losing of the cover of his acolyte more pushed than him and secondly, in the point of view of the domination of theses enemy sentinelles.  Its also impossible to create a immediate duo with a backward pawn!..In short, in often a big disadvantage..

Let's see a final example , about this concept of backward pawn..

In this situation, b2,d3 and h4 are backward pawn..

That's all for the part 1... Keep an eye on part 2 (cool and instructive tricks pawns to know)

• #2

Hi, is that stuff all from Hans Kmoch's book Pawn Power in Chess ?

or

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