Exchange Sacrifice

Exchange Sacrifice

Chess players know the term "sacrifice," but what about an "exchange sacrifice"? What does "being up an exchange" mean? Let's find out!

Here is what you need to know about an exchange sacrifice: 


What Is An Exchange Sacrifice? 

An exchange sacrifice is when a player sacrifices a rook for a minor piece (knight or bishop). For example, the phrase "I was up an exchange" refers to having a rook compared to a minor piece. Conversely, the phrase "I am down the exchange" refers to having a minor piece compared to a rook.

In the following diagram, White has a nice attack on the kingside. The only defender to the checkmate threat on h7 is the knight on f6.

exchange sacrifice
Only the knight on f6 stops the checkmate on h7.

White can remove this defender with an exchange sacrifice! Rxf6 exchanges the rook for the knight, and Black is in big trouble!

exchange sacrifice
Rxf6 is an exchange sacrifice!

If Black captures the rook, then checkmate occurs with Qxh7#:

exchange sacrifice
After the exchange sacrifice, Qh7# is checkmate!

Now that you know what an exchange sacrifice is, you may be wondering, "Why are exchange sacrifices important?"

Why Are Exchange Sacrifices Important?

We have already seen how exchange sacrifices can help in mating attacks, but they can also be used for positional reasons. In the endgame, exchange sacrifices can be used to create valuable passed pawns or connect passed pawns.

Former world champion GM Tigran Petrosian is well-known for his famous exchange sacrifices. In fact, when asked what his favorite piece in chess was he replied: "The rook, because I can sacrifice it for minor pieces!"

In the following diagram, we see Petrosian playing with the white pieces. How can he create connected passed pawns?

exchange sacrifice
How can White create connected passed pawns?

Petrosian sacrificed the exchange, of course! After a series of exchanges on a6, Black's c6-pawn fell, and the following position resulted:

exchange sacrifice
The exchange sacrifice allowed Petrosian to create connected passed pawns!

The exchange sacrifice allowed Petrosian to connect two passed pawns, which Black was not able to stop. Here is the entire game for your viewing pleasure:

Exchange sacrifices can be used for other positional reasons as well, including making a structural weakness or to gain control of more squares. In the following game of GM Curt Hansen vs. GM Jonny Hector in 1995, Black has just played a6. 

exchange sacrifice
Is an exchange sacrifice in the air?

White has a strong exchange sacrifice on c6! 

positional exchange sacrifice
Exchange sacrifice!

After the exchange sacrifice on c6, Black recaptures with their b7-pawn, and then White captures the e5-pawn with their knight with the following position:

exchange sacrifice
White has a lot of compensation for the exchange!

After the exchange sacrifice, Black's pawn structure is shattered, White's minor pieces control the center, and Black's c6-pawn is doomed. This type of positional exchange sacrifice is a common theme in the Sicilian Defense and some lines of the English Opening. As you can see, exchange sacrifices can be made for many important reasons: both tactical and positional!

Test

Now that you know what exchange sacrifices are and why they are important, let's put your new skills to the test! In the following position, White has a nice attack against the black king, but how can White breakthrough Black's defenses?

exchange sacrifice
How does White breakthrough Black's defenses?

Yes! The almighty exchange sacrifice on c6 is a winning move!

exchange sacrifice
Exchange sacrifice for the win!

Please note that White threatens Black's queen with the rook now on c6 as well as checkmate with Qxa7#. 

Let's try one more test! In the following position from the game between GMs Jeffery Xiong and Samuel Shankland in 2018, how can Black sacrifice an exchange to gain more control over the center and have more active pieces?

Is an exchange sacrifice in the air?

Yes! The exchange sacrifice on c3 is strong! 

Exchange sacrifice!

White recaptures on c3 with their queen and then...

Black is better after an exchange sacrifice.

Black captures the e4-pawn with their light-squared bishop, and the black pieces are extremely active! The knight on e5 is centralized, and Black's bishops are raking the board on adjacent diagonals. White's h1-rook is attacked by Black's light-squared bishop, the black knight has the powerful c4 or f3 outpost, and the dark-squared bishop both defends the black king and has scope over the long a1-h8 diagonal!

Conclusion

You now know what exchange sacrifices are, why they are important, how to recognize times when exchange sacrifices can be helpful, and more! Use this new knowledge in your own games and may all of your exchange sacrifices earn you victories!