The Ruy Lopez Opening, also called the Spanish Opening, is named after a 16th-century Spanish priest who made a systematic study of the opening that bears his name. First recorded in chess manuscripts in 1561, it was rediscovered in the mid-19th century by Carl Jaenisch, a Russian theoretician, who realized its potential. The opening remains the most commonly used amongst master players who have adopted it using both colors, but due to Black's difficulty to achieve equality, and that Lopez was a priest during the Spanish Inquisition, it has since acquired the nickname "The Spanish Torture". The opening is rich in fascinating positions and traps. There are many variations and defenses against the Ruy Lopez. The following are variations from Bill Wall's book titled "700 Opening Traps"